Name:period:Date:NOVA: Hunting the ElementsPart 1: Quest for Gold; Sound of Bronze; Atomic Zoom; the Periodic Table; Explosively Reactive(1 hr)Video at: nts.htmlSo for the second bomb, called Fat Man, they used an entirely different element, plutonium: 94 protons,94 electrons and 150 neutrons.Plutonium was the first manmade element. It was first created as an accidental byproduct in the firstnuclear reactors.Gold - Aua) Write the number of subatomic particles in gold: (Time Stamp: 4:24)Protons:79Electrons:79

Factoid: All the gold ever mined since ancient times would fit into a cube 60 feet on a side.b) Give one property of gold. (Time Stamp: 4:56)a1) Malleable, 2) No tarnish/Rust, 3) virtually indestructibleWhat does "luster" mean? sheenFactoid: At the Cortez mine in Nevada, each truck holds 400 tons Each ton of rock contains about oneounce of gold. At 1,800/oz, that works out to 720,000/truck.c) What determines how reactive an element is? (Time Stamp: 8:37)aOuter electronsd) About of the elements are metals. How an atom reacts chemically depends on how willing it is toshare electrons with others and gold is not very social.e) Which are the "noble metals"? Color code them on the blank periodic table. (Time Stamp: 9:43)aSilver (Ag), Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd), Osmium (Os), and Iridiumf) Only a few natural elements have greater density than gold. (Time Stamp: 12:42) They are:Rhenium (Re), Platinum (Pt), Iridium (Ir), and Osmium (Os).Factoid: Each gold bar, weighing about 60 pounds, and representing about a million pounds of rockthat was moved and processed, is worth about a million and a half dollars.Copper - Cu7. Write the number of subatomic particles in copper: (Time Stamp: 13:31)Protons: 29Electrons: 29Factoid: The ancients first learned how to heat rocks to extract copper at least 7,000 yearsago.8. List three uses of copper. (Time Stamp: 15:37; 16:01) 1. Infrastructure, 2. Electronics, 3. Wire, 4.Computer chips, 5. Plumbing and other building materialsGive one property of copper. (Time Stamp: 16:32) 1. High conductivity. 2. Soft metal, 3.Malleable, 4. Moderate melting point, 5. Scares away bacteria2

Tin - Sn10. Tin added in small amounts to copper makes , the first man-made metal bronze alloy. Onceforged into tools and weapons, this alloy played such a defining role in human civilization that wename an entire age after it. The early history of civilization is often divided into the Stone Age, theAge, and the Iron Age. (Time Stamp: 17:38)11. Write the number of subatomic particles in tin: (Time Stamp: 17:28)Protons: 50Electrons: 5012. How are atoms arranged in pure metals? (Time Stamp: 19:18) In pure metals, the atoms arearranged in orderly rows and columns. Each atom gives up some of its electrons to create a kind ofsea of these randomly moving charged particles.13. Describe what makes metals conductive? It's these free-flowing electrons that make metalsconductive. When placed in a circuit, the negatively charged particles line up and flow as anelectric current.This same structural feature also creates flexible, metallic bonds among the atoms. In copper, theycan slide past each other easily, which makes it relatively soft and easy to dent, not right for a bell.Electron MicroscopeFactoid: To pick out an atom, the electron microscope must "zoom in" a hundred million times If wewere looking at the entire United States from 2,000 miles above earth, and we zoomed in 100,000,000times, we would be able to pick out a ladybug in the grass.14. Why is the electron microscope wrapped in acoustic blankets? (Time Stamp: 29:13) They aremeant to absorb and reflect sound, because the microscope itself is so sensitive that if you were totalk, just the pressure wave from your voice is going to, is going to give enough mechanicalvibration to shake the microscope around. Even a small microscopic shake by an atom for theimage to vanish.15. Describe the appearance of the bronze sample under the electron microscope. (Time Stamp:30:43) Regular rows of copper atoms with tin atoms packed in betweenFactoid: The electron microscope can only pick out the outermost boundaries around atoms. Theinterior is 10,000 times smaller. If the outer boundary of a hydrogen atom, where the electron is3

found, were enlarged to be two miles wide, about the size of a city, the single proton in its nucleuswould be the size of a golf ball.16. What do protons have to do with the identity an element?(Time Stamp: 32:40) it's the number ofprotons that determines what kind of element the atom is.The number of protons is called the atomic number. Label the atomic number and atomic symbol, of calcium:CaCalcium40.0818. How come the symbol for gold is Au, when the word gold doesn't include the letters A and U?(Time Stamp: 33:58)79Ausymbol is based on the Latin name aurumGold197.019. More than 70% of the elements in the Periodic Table are metals: shiny malleable (bendable)materials that conduct electricity. Draw in the diagonal zig-zag line that separates metals fromnonmetals on the Periodic Table.20. Give an example of an everyday object made from each of the following elements: (Time Stamp:35:33)a. Calcium — pure calcium metal, combined with other elements to make boneb. Bismuth — in stomach medicinec. Bromine — in soda21. In the late 1860's, Mendeleev published his periodic table. He knew nothing about protons, atomicnumbers, or even about atoms. Mendeleev created 63 cards, one for each element known at thetime, distinguishing them by (Time Stamp: 36:30) atomic weight4

Nineteenth-century scientists didn't know about atoms, or the weight of atoms, but they couldcompare the weights of elements. What did they use as the unit of comparison? (Time Stamp:37:39) they compared the weights of different elements to the lightest, hydrogen. So when theysay oxygen is 16, that means 16 times the weight of hydrogen22. Mendeleev lived long enough to see three gaps in his Periodic Table filled by the discoveries of(Time Stamp: 40:10) Scandium (Sc), Gallium (Ga), and Germanium (Ge)23.Where did the noble gases get their name? (Time Stamp: 40:30) They are like nobilityin the sense that they don't mix with the riffraff. They don't like to react with any other elements.By and large, it's not possible to form compounds with them.24. Protons determine the identity of an element, while electrons determine (Time Stamp: 41:32)Reactivity25.26.27. (Time Stamp: 42:00) Electrons occupy concentric shells around the nucleus. The first shellmaxes out at 2 electrons, the second holds 8 electrons, and the third goesAn atom with electron in its outer shell is a "happy,satisfied" atom, and is unreactive.up to 8 .Draw in the maximum number of electrons in eachshell. Electrons in the third shell are shown as a model.protonChlorine - Cl28. (Time Stamp: 42:36) The halogens occupy the column just before the noble gases. Halogenshave an outer shell that needs just one more electron to be full, making them very reactive. Themost notorious halogen is chlorine, which was used as a poison gas during World War One. Colorin the halogen family on the first page.29. Give the number of atomic particles in chlorine: (Time Stamp: 42:51)Protons: 17Electrons: 17Chlorine tends to ( take / give away ) one electron when it reacts.5

30. The alkali metals are located (Time Stamp: 43:32)Color them in on the first page.Alkali metals ALL have electron(s) in the outer shell. one electron31. Describe what you see when sodium reacts with water. (Time Stamp: 45:26) What we're seeingis what happens when sodium's extra electron tears apart water molecules, releasing flammablehydrogen gas—the H in H2O—which explodes when it mixes with air32.What is the product of the reaction of sodium metal and chlorine gas? (Time Stamp:47:18) At the atomic level, sodium, an alkali metal, had an electron it didn't want, and chlorine, ahalogen, wants desperately to grab an electron. Chlorine takes the electron, both atoms have fullshells, making them stable and able to join to form a crystal compound: sodium chloride, table salt.Oxygen - OFactoid: ANFO, which stands for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil, is widely used in mining andconstruction. Unfortunately, it is also used in Improvised Explosive Devices, where it is known as afertilizer bomb.31. (Time Stamp: 53:12)Analysis of residue from explosions can identify what was in the bomb. Theion chromatograph looks for positively or negatively charged particles, called ions(Time Stamp: 53:53) Nitrates, a common ingredient in explosives, contain 3 oxgyen and 1 nitrogenatoms32.The drawing below shows how the atoms in ANFO rearrange to form the products,carbon dioxide (C02), nitrogen gas (N2), and water ( 0). What causes the release of energy?(Time Stamp: 54:19) To set off the bomb, an initial spark of heat breaks those bonds. Once setfree, oxygen rushes away from the nitrogen to combine with the elements it prefers: carbon,hydrogen and even other oxygen atoms, leaving the nitrogen to pair up with each other. Every timeatoms form a new bond, the reaction releases energy33. We see combustion reactions of oxygen every day. (Time Stamp: 54:31)The burning of a candle is the reaction of oxygen gas with the element carbon (C)The slow rusting of a car is the reaction of oxygen gas with the(Time Stamp: 54:54)element iron (Fe)6

How can we speed up a fire to create an explosion? (Time Stamp: 55:14) You regulate theamount of oxygen and how closely it's packed together with other elements.Part 2: Elements of Life, Elemental Earth, Rare Earth Elements, RadioactiveDating, and Manmade Elements (1 hr)Elements of Life35. List a common, hardware store source, for each of the six elements of life: (Time Stamp:1:00 onehour in)Carbon: Charcoal (Time Stamp:1:00:13, one hour and 13 seconds in)Hydrogen: water (hydrogen and oxygen) (Time Stamp:1:00:23)Nitrogen: fertilizer (Time Stamp:1:00:30)Phosphorus: Matches (Time Stamp:1:00:44)36. The German alchemist, Hennig Brandt, discovered phosphorus around 1669. This was the firstelement isolated from a living creature. What was his source of phosphorus? (Time Stamp:1:01:50) urine(Time Stamp: 1:07:17) Phosphorus is involved in ATP, which is the molecule that all cells use forenergy.What happens to the solution containing phosphorus is exposed to air? (Time Stamp: 1:07:45)Glows (phosphorescence)37. The six CHNOPS elements make up 97% of our body's weight. The other 3% are called the traceelements. What can happen when excessive trace elements are lost from the body, such as bysweating? (Time Stamp: 1:12:27) cramping affecting athletes performances in games and practice38. Describe a body function or part that utilizes each of these trace elements: (Time Stamp: 1:12:51)a. Calcium — Bonesb. Iron — Blood (Time Stamp: 1:13:27)c. Zinc- Metabolism (Time Stamp: 1:13:42)7

d. Potassium — Nervous System (Time Stamp: 1:13:44)e. Magnesium — Energy Metabolism (Time Stamp: 1:13:48)f. Sodium — Nervous System (Time Stamp: 1:13:51)39.When life began on earth, there was no oxygen in the air. Then Cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae) evolved to become oxygen-making machines. What three things did thecyanobacteria need for growth? (Time Stamp: 1:16:07)a. Lightb. waterc. oxgyen?Elemental Earth40. What is the origin of hydrogen, the smallest element? (Time Stamp: 1:18:27) Big Bang41. Helium is produced when fusion, the most energetic reaction in the cosmos,(Time Stamp: 1:19:42) forces 2 (how many?)atoms together.42.How are larger elements in the periodic table made? (Time Stamp: 1:20:34) Starscreate helium throughout their long lives, but in their old age they run low on hydrogen and beginto fuse helium, creating larger and larger elements. And you'll start walking up the periodic table,making more and more elements. First you made helium; then you'll make lithium and berylliumand boron. And you can do this all the way up to iron.43. Elements heavier than iron are created when a star in its death throes begins to collapse and apowerful explosion called a supernova occurs. (Time Stamp: 1:20:52)44. (Time Stamp: 1:22:20) Sand is made of the two elements, silicon andoxygen8

45. (Time Stamp: 1:24:18) What is added to Gorilla Glass to make it stronger than normal glass?Metal atoms (sodium (Na), potassium (K), and aluminum (Al)Rare Earth Elements46. There are 15 rare earth elements: the Lanthanide series (elements 57-71) plus scandium andyttrium. Color them in on the front page. (Time Stamp: 1:25:45)47. Neodymium is a rare earth that is the key ingredient in the world's strongest magnets. What aresome uses for neodymium magnets? (Time Stamp: 1:25:56) computers, cell phones, hybrid cars,wind turbines, and ear buds48. Most, in fact 98%, of rare earth elements come from China . How many rare earthmines are there in the U.S.? (Time Stamp: 1:26:48)49. Rare earth elements are not rare; they are just hard to separate. How are the fifteen rare earthelements chemically similar? (Time Stamp: 1:29:09) Moving from element to element, along arow of the periodic table, adds a proton to the nucleus and an electron to the outer shell, but in therare earths, the new electron disappears into an unfilled inner shell. Fifteen atoms that all haveidentical outer electron shells, making them virtually indistinguishable chemically.50. (Time Stamp: 1:30:39) The main ingredient in neodymium magnet is Fe (iron) . They alsocontain much smaller amounts of the elements: B (boron)51. (Time Stamp: 1:32:28) Why are rare earth elements in such short supply? they're hard toseparate, and expensive.52. How do sharks react to rare earth metals? (Time Stamp: 1:33:28) Repulsed9

Isotopes(Vocab)****The different versions are called isotopes.Consider carbon, the backbone of life. It has three natural isotopes, or versions. Each has six protons and six electrons.That's what makes them all