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www.standardsinstitutes.org

BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND LITERACY PROFICIENCY THROUGH TEACHING ARGUMENTATION ODELL EDUCATION We know from experience the hard work teachers face every day as they strive to help their students meet the challenges set by higher standards. We are dedicated to empowering teachers by providing free, high-quality standardsaligned resources for the classroom, the opportunity for immersive training through our Institute, and the option of support through our website offerings.

We are a team of current and former classroom teachers, curriculum writers, school leaders and education experts who have worked in the public, private and nonprofit sectors. 2 About Me PICTURE PICTURE OF OF YOU

YOU Information Information about about YOU YOU 3 Introduction: Who You Are

Raise your hand if you are an ELA teacher you are an ELA teacher coach you hold a different role you teach in a district school you teach in a charter school you teach or work in a different type of school or organization Inquiry Question 1 What is the relationship between building

knowledge and developing proficiency? Inquiry Question 2 How do we design instruction that builds knowledge and develops proficiency in ALL learners? TWO-DAY WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES: Over this two-day workshop we will 1.Explore the relationship between building knowledge and

developing literacy proficiency. 2.Learn how instruction can be designed to build knowledge and develop proficiency in all learners. 3.Learn the OE Core Proficiencies approach to teaching CCSS argumentation with an emphasis on defending a position developed from topical understanding and textual evidence. 4.Reflect on how to integrate what you have experienced this week 7 Workshop Roadmap

DAY 1 Session 1 INTRODUCTION TO TEACHING CCSS ARGUMENTATION LUNCH Session 2 TEACHING ARGUMENTATION TO ALL LEARNERS Break (15 minutes)

Session 3 DELINEATING ARGUMENTS AND COMPARING PERSPECTIVES Session 4 EVALUATING ARGUMENTS AND DEVELOPING A POSITION Workshop Roadmap

DAY 2 Session 5 BUILDING AN EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENT Session 6 SUPPORTING STUDENTS ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING BREAK (15 minutes)

Session 7 EXPLORING AND EVALUATING OUR ARGUMENTS LUNCH Session 8 REFLECTION ON THE SESSION AND WEEK Workshop Sessions Protocol: Activity

progression 1.Activity a. Explanation of activity b. Participants work independently or in pairs (as students) c. Small groups discuss the activity (as teachers) d. Plenary discussion (as teachers) 2.Small Group and Plenary Discussion Guides a. How do the activities address the specific language of the targeted CCSS?

b. What do the activities teach us about our Inquiry Questions? Session 1: INTRODUCTION TO TEACHING CCSS ARGUMENTATION Session 1: Introduction to Teaching CCSS Argumentation Objectives 1.Analyze CCSS RI.8 and W.1 and their implications for student

learning. 2.Be introduced to the OE Core Proficiencies approach to teaching argumentation with an emphasis on defending a position developed from topical understanding and textual evidence. 3.Become familiar with the organization of the OE Building EvidenceBased Arguments units and materials. 4.Read informational texts from Grade 9 Building EBA Unit. Activity 1.1: Reading CCSS RI.8 and W.1 closely Read and Annotate: RI.8 and W.1

Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 1. What words or phrases stand out as significant? 2. What connections do you see between the two standards? 3. What seems different from how you have approached teaching students to analyze and write arguments in the past? 4. What kinds of texts are necessary to meet the skills addressed in these standards? 5. What is the relationship between the building of knowledge and the development of proficiency? Plenary discussion

CCSS.RI.8 RI.8.ANCHOR: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. RI.9-10.8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. RI.8.11-12: Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy.

CCSS W.9-10.1 W.9-10.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a: Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b: Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.

c: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. d: Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. CCSS W.11-12.1 W 1.11-12: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the

claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. Activity 1.2: Discussing CCSS Argumentation Read and Annotate: pp. 24-25 of Appendix A - The special Place of argument in the standards Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 1. What words or phrases stand out as significant? 2. How does the CCSS articulate the difference between argument and persuasion? 3. What are the implications for the importance of argumentation for our ELA classrooms

and curriculum? Plenary discussion CCSS Appendix A As part of their attempt to explain to new college students the major differences between good high school and college writing, Williams and McEnerney define argument not as wrangling but as a serious and focused conversation among people who are intensely interested in getting to the bottom of things cooperatively: (CCSS, Appendix A, p. 24)

Odell Education Claims For all learners to build knowledge and develop proficiency in CCSS argumentation we should: 1. teach RI.8 and W.1 together with a learning progression sequenced to coordinate building topical knowledge with developing analytic reading and writing proficiency. 2. teach academic vocabulary to support students argumentative analysis, discussion and writing. 3. use substantive topics that are relevant to students and provide a rich

context for learning argumentation. Activity 1.3: Evaluating OE Claim 1 Read: Unit Plan p. 2 - Evidence-Based Argumentation, Unit Outline, and Grade 9 Text Sets Evaluate the claim in your Small Group: For all learners to build knowledge and proficiency in CCSS argumentation we should teach RI.8 and W.1 together with a learning progression sequenced to coordinate building topical knowledge with developing analytic reading and writing proficiency. Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions:

1. How does the unit activity sequence directly address W.1 and RI.8? 2. What do the activity sequence and text set show about the relationship between building knowledge and developing proficiency? Plenary Discussion Odell Education Building EBA Unit 9 Google search: odell education literacy Click on: Unit 4: Building Evidence-Based Arguments Click on: Grade 9 Unit

Click on: Argumentation Unit Plan G9 http://odelleducation.com/literacy-curriculum http://odelleducation.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Argumentati on-Unit-Plan-G9.pdf Activity 1.4: Introducing the issue with questions View the video: West Wing, Proportional Response Read Unit Plan Part 1, Activity 1 - Introducing the Unit (p. 9-10) Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions:

1. What are students aware of as they begin the unit? 2. How do questions help introduce the topic to students? 3. How is the video used instructionally? Plenary discussion Problem-based question: West Wing, Proportional Response https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rtrX9rZl-j4 Activity 1.5: Building

background knowledge Read: Unit Plan Part 1, Activity 2 (p. 10-12) and the texts 1. What is terrorism? 2. Terrorist or Freedom Fighter: What is the difference?

3. FBI Major Terrorism Cases: Past and Present Write a paragraph summary EBC of one of the texts. (Use an Organizing EBC Tool) Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 4. How does the unit activity sequence directly address W.1 and RI.8?

5. What do the activity sequence and text set show about the relationship between building knowledge and developing proficiency? Plenary Discussion Locating texts online All texts from the unit (Unit Plan page 7) can be found online by

searching for the title and author. Copy and paste the title and author into the search field of google.com to quickly locate the texts. End of Session 1 Questions regarding: CCSS.RI.8, W.1? Argumentation unit text sets and outline? Building background knowledge?

LUNCH Session 2: ARGUMENTATION FOR ALL STUDENTS Session 2 Objectives Participants practice using unit materials to: 1.Learn how text sets can be designed to build all students topical knowledge.

2.Learn how to build all students proficiency with argumentation through teaching terminology. 3.Explore how building topical knowledge and literacy proficiency are symbiotic. Inquiry Question 2 How do we design instruction that builds knowledge and develops literacy proficiency in ALL learners?

Inquiry Question: How do we design instruction that builds knowledge and develops literacy proficiency in ALL learners? Challenge of Inclusion: Central instruction changes to engage diverse learners with rigorous objectives Separate strategies support English language learners, students with special needs, and students with advanced proficiency Flexibility in instructional design allows teachers to adapt to a variety of

classroom compositions. Activity 2.1: Building topical knowledge with text sets Review and Reflect on Unit Plan Part 1, Activities 1 and 2, and Text Set (pp. 9-12, 7) Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 1. What stands out as significant in the way the text set is constructed? 2. How do the texts build on each other? 3. How are the various ways you might use each text set with your students? 4. How do the text sets and unit plan address CCSS RI.8?

Plenary discussion BUILDING EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENTS EXAMPLE UNIT: GRADE 9 Terrorism Text Set #1: Background - The definitions of terrorism/terrorist, incidents of domestic terrorism. Text Set #2: Background 9/11 Terrorist attacks on U.S. Text Set #3: Political Cartoons

Text Set #4: Seminal Arguments Text Set #5: Current Arguments Activity 2.2: CCSS.RI.8, W.1 and Vocabulary demands Read: CCSS.RI.8, W.1 Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 1. What are the vocabulary demands that RI.8 and W.1 present? 2. How do we help students understand what is being asked of them when we ask them to delineate, evaluate and write arguments?

3. At the same time, how can students understand terms and concepts such as fallacious reasoning, valid, substantial and relevant evidence and false statements without knowledge of the topic at hand? Plenary Discussion CCSS and Vocabulary demands CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1 1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level and concerns.

CCSS and Building Vocabulary How do we help students understand what is being asked of them when we ask them to delineate, evaluate, and write arguments? CCSS and Building Vocabulary At the same time, how can students understand terms and concepts such as fallacious reasoning, valid, substantial and relevant evidence and false statements without knowledge of the topic at hand?

OE claim 2 For all learners to build knowledge and develop proficiency in CCSS argumentation we should teach academic vocabulary to support their argumentative analysis, discussion and writing. Activity 2.3: CCSS.RI.8, W.1 and building vocabulary Read the EBA Terms and Delineating Arguments Tool

Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 1. How do students begin to understand what is being asked of them when we ask them to evaluate and delineate arguments, or write one themselves? 2. At the same time, how can students understand terms and concepts such as fallacious reasoning, valid, substantial and relevant evidence and false statements without knowledge of topic at hand? 3. How are these tools linked to RI.8 and W.1? Plenary Discussion EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENTATION TERMS

EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENTATION TERMS Challenge: 1.RI.8 and W.1 require complex language to learn what argumentation is and to learn about a substantive topic 2.Diverse learning needs. Question: Given the diverse learning needs of our students, how can we teach these terms so that students understand them conceptually and

topically? Activity 2.4: Using the Terms, Delineator and Model Arguments Read: a model argument (Twitter or Course Scheduling) Use the Delineating Arguments Tool and EBA Terms Handout to delineate the argument of one of the case studies. Activity 2.4: Using the Terms, Delineator and Model Arguments

Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 1. How does the tool help students understand the components of an argument? 2. How does the model argument help students apply and learn the academic vocabulary? 3. How do these materials address CCSS.RI.8? Session Inquiry Questions: 4. What is the relationship between deepening knowledge and developing proficiency? 5. How do we design instruction that builds knowledge and develops literacy proficiency in ALL learners?

DELINEATING ARGUMENTS - APPLYING NEW VOCABULARY IN A MEANINGFUL CONTEXT Inquiry Question: How do we design instruction that builds knowledge and develops literacy proficiency in ALL learners? Students use the Evidence-Based Arguments Terms Handout while reading and discussing texts. Students use the Delineating Arguments Tool, which uses the same terms, to pick apart texts with respect to their argumentative elements.

Argumentation Terminology and Concepts are taught progressively. To help build vocabulary related to the various elements of argumentation, students first analyze a model argument that should be familiar to the class, such as using Twitter in school. instruction that builds knowledge and develops literacy proficiency in ALL learners? 1.The key factor is comprehensible input: messages in the second

language that make sense - ideally, just beyond the competence of the listener, who must strain a bit to understand. (Crawford, 2004 explaining Krashens input hypothesis) instruction that builds knowledge and develops literacy proficiency in ALL learners? 1.Vygotsky proposed that children learn very little from performing tasks they can already do independently. Instead, they develop primarily by attempting tasks they can accomplish only with assistance and support - that is, when they attempt tasks within

their zone of proximal development. (Ormrod, 2011). instruction that builds knowledge and develops literacy proficiency in ALL learners? Krashen & Vygotsky - Implications on instruction 1. It is difficult to acquire new language when students dont understand the context. 2. However, students need to be pushed out of their comfort zones if we want them to acquire new vocabulary. 3. Students thus use comprehensible argument models and graphic organizers to learn

the language of argumentation prior to diving into complex arguments on the topic. End of Session 2 Questions regarding: The EBA Terms Handout? The Delineating Arguments Tool? Scaffolding student work? Model arguments? CCSS.RI.8, W.1?

Session 3: DELINEATING ARGUMENTS AND COMPARING PERSPECTIVES Session 3 Objectives Participants practice using unit materials to: 1.Delineate a seminal argument. 2.Analyze perspective in arguments while building topical knowledge. 3.Develop an Evidence-Based Claim comparing two arguments based

on the author's perspectives. Activity 3.1: Delineating a seminal argument Read the Joint Resolution of the 107th Congress Use the Tool to the Delineating Arguments Tool to delineate the argument, identifying specific components of the text. Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 1. How does the graphic organizer support student comprehension and analysis of arguments?

2. How does the seminal argument help students apply and learn the vocabulary? 3. How does the seminal argument help students to deepen their knowledge of the topic? Plenary Discussion Part 2, Activities 3 + 4 PERSPECTIVE Key to understanding arguments related to a topic and writing ones own argument is the concept of Perspective. Using the EBA Terms Handout and Delineating Arguments Tool, students also turn their eye to perspective. Not only is perspective essential for RI.8, it is also essential for W.1.

CCSS W.9-10.1 W.9-10.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a: Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b: Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.

CCSS W.11-12.1 W 1.11-12: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible

biases. Activity 3.2: Delineating arguments and comparing perspectives Read/watch Unit Plan Part 2, Activities 4 and 5 (pp. bottom of 21-24) and the two texts 1. Bush's first official response to 9/11 from the Oval Office, President Bush, Yale Law School Avalon Project. (video also available youtube) 2. A Place of Peace: for a 9/11 victims widow, revenge is not the answer, Lauren Frohne, 9/4/2011, Boston Globe Use the Delineating Arguments Tool to identify specific components of each text. Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions:

3. What is the author thinking and saying about the issue? 4. What do the authors language and approach suggest about his/her relationship to and perspective on the issue or problem? 5. How does the authors relationship to the issue help shape his/ her position? Activity 3.3: Developing comparative claims Use the Organizing EBC Tool to write down a claim that compares the perspectives of two authors, choosing evidence from the texts to support your claim. Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions:

1. What comparisons did you draw from the texts? 2. What did these texts allow you to compare? 3. How does this activity deepen students topical knowledge and support their argumentative writing? Plenary discussion Writing comparative claims about perspective and argument Students write evidence-based claims to help understand

and analyze each argument. They will use these claims later as they compile notes and thoughts to build their argument paper. Delineating more arguments and perspectives Unit Plan Part 2, Activities 5 & 6:

Students have ample materials (arguments) to analyze in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the : delineation of arguments different ways argumentative techniques can be used to communicate a position substantive topic (CCSS.W.1) End of Session 3 Questions regarding: The EBA Terms Handout? The Delineating Arguments Tool?

Perspective? Seminal arguments? CCSS.RI.8, W.1? Session 4: EVALUATING ARGUMENTS AND DEVELOPING A POSITION (WERE READY FOR RI.8!)

Session 4 Objectives Participants will learn how students: 1.progress from delineating to evaluating arguments based on a developing position on the issue 2.achieve success in RI.8 CCSS.RI.8 RI.8.ANCHOR: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

RI.9-10.8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. RI.8.11-12: Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy. Also preparation for CCSS W.1 W.1.a: Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from

alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. Activity 4.1: Evaluating arguments Read: Part 3, Activity 1 and scan the two texts: 1. 9/11 Paul Wolfowitz Interview PBS News Hour With Jim Lehrer September 14, 2001 2. Our War on Terrorism, Howard Zinn Use a checklist:

Review Sections I and II of the Evidence-Based Arguments Criteria Checklist Select ONE of the arguments and evaluate it based on the checklist and your developing perspective on the topic. Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 3. How does the checklist help students evaluate an argument? 4. How does the checklist address CCSS.RI.8 and W.1? Evaluating compelling arguments using a criteria checklist Students now use a

handout to help them evaluate arguments and determine whether they are compelling. Activity 4.2: Determine compelling arguments Unit Plan Part 3, Activity 1: evaluating an argument involves both an objective, criteria-based assessment of its strengths and weaknesses, and the consideration of

ones own developing position about the issue Discuss with your Small Group: 1.With this in mind, think about which arguments are compelling to you and why. 2.What is your own developing position and how does your perspective help shape that position? End of Session 4 At this point, you: have a firm grasp of the issue

understand key argumentation terms can delineate and evaluate arguments using tools and checklists have written claims about an authors perspective, position and argument using tools have begun to develop your own perspective and position on the issue End of Session 4 Questions regarding: Developing a perspective?

Using tools to delineate and evaluate arguments? The materials or instructional progression? The text sets? CCSS.RI.8, W.1? Tomorrow you will express your position Homework: THINK about the topic and the texts you have read. TALK about the topic and the texts you have read.

IF you want, RESEARCH and READ more perspectives. (Either from the unit texts or other sources) THANK YOU FOR YOUR HARD WORK!!! Good Morning Yesterday we: 1.Explored the relationship between building knowledge and developing literacy proficiency

2.Studied RI.8 and W.1 closely 3.Learned ways to teach CCSS argumentation to all students. 4.Built our knowledge of the issue of responding to acts of terrorism 5.Read, delineated and evaluated arguments 6.Began to develop and discuss our own positions on the topic Good Morning Today we will: 1.Discuss the instructional demands of W.1 2.Consider another argument on our issue

3.Develop and write our position 4.Learn about a process to develop and strengthen writing 5.Discuss Open Educational Resources and the OER Core Proficiencies Program 6.Reflect on our experience this week and how will integrate what we Workshop Roadmap DAY 2 Session 5

BUILDING AN EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENT Session 6 SUPPORTING STUDENTS ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING BREAK (15 minutes) Session 7 EXPLORING AND EVALUATING OUR ARGUMENTS

LUNCH Session 8 REFLECTION ON THE SESSION AND WEEK Questions about yesterday or today? Session 5: BUILDING

EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENTS Session 5 Building Evidence-Based Arguments Objectives Participants will: 1.discuss the demands of W.1 in terms of topic and proficiency 2.write a position statement on the issue 3.learn how the learning progression and unit materials support

students in building evidence-based arguments Returning to the Standards Now that weve spent a day immersed in the Building Evidence-Based Arguments Unit and before we prepare to tackle W.1, lets return to the language of the standard and consider again its demands. Activity 5.1: Determining the Demands of W.1 Read W.1

Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions: 1. What is your developing perspective on what W.1 for Grades 9-12 demands of students? 2. What is your developing perspective on the type of substantive topics necessary for W.1? 3. How confident do you feel in your perspective and knowledge about national responses to acts of terrorism? Plenary Discussion CCSS W.9-10.1

W.9-10.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a: Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b: Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns. c: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s)

and counterclaims. d: Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. CCSS W.11-12.1 W 1.11-12: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

Determining the Demands of W.1 Substantive Topics: Do not have one or even two clear positions Require evidence-based critical reading, thinking and writing Are clearly relevant to the students lives Build important knowledge in students Require time to explore Will produce disagreement among students and with their teachers

Determining the Demands of W.1 Writing arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics: Requires evidence-based critical reading, thinking and writing Builds important knowledge in students Requires time to explore Rests on proficiency with ALL of the grade-level Reading Standards 1-10 Should NOT be the first instructional objective tackled in the school year OE Claim 4

For all learners to build knowledge and proficiency in CCSS argumentation we must use substantive topics that are relevant to students and provide a rich backdrop for learning argumentation. BUILDING EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENTS UNIT TOPICS Grade Unit Title Grade 6

Energy Crossroads Unit Guiding Question How should states address the potential of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to access natural gas? What policies should institutions and leagues have regarding the use of performance-enhancing drugs in athletic competition?

Grade 7 Doping can be that last 2 percent Grade 8 E pluribus Unum Grade 9

What is the virtue of a proportional response? How should nations define and respond to acts of terrorism? Grade 10 Search Warrant

How should the U.S. balance the need for national security with its citizens right to privacy? Grade 11 Cuplae poena par esto: Let the punishment fit the crime What should the purposes of the U.S. prison system be?

Grade 12 Do unto others as you would have them do unto you What are our social and economic responsibilities to those less fortunate than ourselves? What should the basic tenets of current U.S.

immigration policy be? Lets take on W.1! One last argument on the topic... Watch: Keyword search: cnn obama deploying drones http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/23/politics/obama-terror-speech/ Keyword search: cnn Donald Trump on terrorists

http://www.cnn.com/2015/12/02/politics/donald-trump-terrorists-families/index.ht ml Read: Keyword search: nytimes Obamas Speech on Drone Policy http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/24/us/politics/transcript-of-obamas-speech-on-dr one-policy.html Activity 5.2: Developing a position Read Unit Plan Part 3, Activity 2

Review Arguments you have read and your analysis of those texts Write a claim that states your position on the appropriate response to acts of terrorism. In Pairs: Read your position statements. Discuss what further evidence is needed to support your claims sufficiently. Write one inquiry question for each participant that needs to be addressed to support the position. Activity 5.3: Deepening Understanding

Read Unit Plan Part 3, Activity 3 Use the inquiry question you developed with your partner to conduct a short research project to find relevant and sufficient evidence. End of Session 5 Questions regarding: Developing a position? The materials or instructional progression? The texts? CCSS.RI.8, W.1?

Session 6: SUPPORTING STUDENTS ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING Session 6 Supporting Students Argumentative Writing Objectives Participants will: 1.learn how students work with RI.8 directly supports their

argumentative writing 2.use unit materials to organize their own argument 3.learn about the units collaborative approach to developing and strengthening student writing Activity 6.1: Teaching RI.8 and W.1 together. Read: Unit Plan Part 3, Activities 4 and 5 (pp. 29-30), Zinn and Wolfowitz Complete either activity 4 or 5 to choosing one of the texts (depending on your position) Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions:

How does Zinn or Wolfowitz support or counter your own position? How do the texts, activities and approaches connect students work with RI.8 to W.1? Plenary Discussion Activity 6.2: Organizing an Evidence-Based Argument Read Unit Plan Part 4, Activities 3-5 (pp. 33-34) Use a Tool: Use either an Organizing EBC Tool or Delineating Arguments Tool to organize your claims and evidence to support your position. Discuss in Pairs your organizational plan for your argument based on your tools.

Plenary Discussion: How does collaboration with peers support and clarify your thinking? How do these activities relate to the session Inquiry Questions? Activity 6.3: Review the writing approach of the unit Read and Annotate Unit Plan Part 5, Introduction and A COLLABORATIVE, QUESTIONBASED APPROACH TO STRENGTHENING WRITING PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES (pp. 35-38) Discuss in your small group using Guiding Questions 1. What stands out to you as significant? 2. How does this process support all learners in the development of their writing?

Plenary Discussion A Collaborative Approach to Developing and Strengthening Writing The approach has students: 1. Generate content in a variety of ways. 2. Focus on one aspect of writing at a time in review and revision. 3. Use questions and criteria to support review and revision. 4. Follow teacher modeling to give and respond to feedback constructively. 5. Repeat the process multiple times to focus on specific aspects of writing.

End of Session 6 Questions regarding: How students work on RI.8 supports their argumentative writing Unit activities and tools The collaborative process for developing and strengthening writing Session 7: EXPLORING AND EVALUATING OUR ARGUMENTS

Session 7 Peer Review Objectives Participants will: 1.use materials from Building EBA to review each others arguments 2.learn about the various ways one can develop a position on the topic Activity 7.1: finalizing your

organizational plans Review, fine tune and organize your: 1.perspective on the issue 2.claim that states your position on the appropriate response to acts of terrorism. 3.claims and evidence that support your position. 4.delineation and evaluation of key arguments you have read and analyzed

5.delineation and evaluation of counterarguments you have researched 6.written evaluative EBC on one of arguments Activity 7.2: Using the EBA Checklist to reflect on your plan Read the EBA Criteria Checklist Choose criteria from sections I, II or III you would like to use to probe your plan Write down a question that you want to ask a new partner about your organizational plan

For example, Is my position purposefully stated? Do I have sufficient evidence to support my position? Activity 7.3: Using the EBA Checklist to evaluate arguments Talk over your organizational plan, position, evaluative claim (Zinn/Wolfowitz) with a new partner Ask your partner your question that is tied to the EBA Criteria Checklist Respond to your partners question with evidence-based feedback using the EBA

Criteria Checklist as a guide. Reverse the process. Activity 7.4: Discussing the EBA Checklist to evaluate arguments Discuss in small groups using Guiding Questions: 1. How did the checklist help you think about your plan and what question(s) to ask? 2. How did the collaborative process help you think about your work? 3. Did your perspective prior to and after reading and analyzing texts change or remain the same? Why?

4. How do the collaborative process and EBA Criteria Checklist help students develop and articulate an argument? Plenary discussion End of Session 7 Questions regarding: How W.1 is addressed in the collaborative writing process Unit activities and tools The collaborative process for developing and strengthening writing

Session 8: REFLECTING ON THE SESSION Session 8: Reflection on this weeks work Objectives 1. Reflect on and discuss what weve learned about building knowledge and literacy proficiency in all students. 2. Develop a plan for integrating what weve learned into our teaching practices.

Activity 8.1: Considering our Inquiry Questions Write one claim about your experience this week in relationship to the sessions two core Inquiry Questions: What is the relationship between building knowledge and developing proficiency? How do we design instruction that builds knowledge and develops literacy proficiency in ALL learners? Discuss in small groups your exploration of the Inquiry Questions using your claims.

Activity 8.2: Implementing argumentation in our classrooms Re-read any part in the Unit Plan that intrigued or challenged you. Reflect on or write a lesson plan to teach that part in your own learning environment. Discuss in your Small Group 1. What social issue would be engaging for your students? 2. What steps do you need to take to implement your lesson? 3. What challenges do you see implementing the lesson and what steps can you take to address them?

Feedback Please fill out the survey located here: www.standardsinstitutes.org Click Summer 2016 on the top right. Click Details on the center of the page. 110

THANK YOU FOR YOUR HARD WORK!!! SAFE TRAVELS

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