World War II Thanks for coming in Neutrality Why Isolationism? Lives Over there War = increase in taxes
Debtors of Europe Senator Nye blood business,merchants of death Moneymaking brought America to war in World War I America right in doing this? Neutrality Neutrality Acts of 1935-7 When the president proclaimed the
existence of foreign war no American will Sail on belligerent ships Sell/transport munitions to belligerent countries Give loans to belligerent countries Any foreseeable issues with this? 1935 - Italy conquers Ethiopia Neutrality for Spain Spanish Civil War Rebels lead by General Franco Aided financially/militarily by Mussolini &
Hitler Russia aids the loyalists America does not get involved. Peace at any price? Neutrality in Japan Marco Polo Bridge incident Quarantine speech Economic embargoes Panay American gunship sunk 2 killed, 30 wounded
Japan apologizes pays some cash Secretly not happy London Conference London Economic Conference (33) International attack on the global depression America leaves International cooperation nil and nationalism +++ International Isolationism?
Recognized USSR Hoped for trade and wanted friends Philippines were a financial liability Organized labor Sugar producers in Hawaii Tydings-McDuffie (34) Philippine independence Keep naval bases State Farm
Good Neighbor Policy Showed America content with Monroe Doctrine Didnt want to be militarily involved Pulled out of Cuba (Guantanamo) Eased up on Panama, Marines left Haiti Mexico takes oil; Roosevelt negotiates Reciprocal Trade
Agreements Secretary of State Hull Reversed the traditional high-protective- tariff policy that persisted since Civil War Would lead a policy of post WW2; free trade in America, and therefore an economic boom Neutrality in Germany Treaty of Versailles
Rhineland Conscription Mechanized military Conquers Austria Conquers Sudentland from Czechoslovakia 1938 Munich Conference ok, I am done Conquers Czechoslovakia
Neutrality in Russia France and Britain try to buddy up with Stalin fail. Aug. 1939 Non-aggression pact between Russia and Germany What does this mean? Sept. 1939 Hitler wants Polish lands back from WW I. Takes over Poland in 3 weeks Blitzkrieg = lightning war Splits it up with Russia
Britain & France declare war Neutrality in America? Cash & Carry You pay now and you transport it Dec. 1939 Russia takes over Finland
April 1940 Germany takes over Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, & Belgium June 1940 France surrenders America Wakes Up $37 Billion in a military revival Sept. 1940 - 1st ever peacetime draft Monroe Doctrine will be upheld Battle of Britain Two options for America
Fortress America or Bolster Britain Neutrality in America? Sept. 1940 50 destroyers from WW I in exchange for 8 strategic naval bases for 99 years Does Roosevelt have this right? Lend-Lease Act guns, not sons billions, not bodies blank check bill
How we looking? Neutrality cont May 1941 Robin Moore is sunk June 1941 Hitler attacks Russia Roosevelt extends Lend-Lease to Russia in with $1 billion. Atlantic Charter
No territorial changes Choose their own form of government New league of nations July 1941 - America will transport goods Nov. 1941 Merchant ships can be armed after the sinking of the Greer, Kearny, and Reuben James Holocaust Holocaust Concentration Camps Back to Japan
Dec. 1940 Embargo upon Japan June 1941 freezing of Japanese assets in America Dec. 1941 get out of China in exchange for limited trade Dec. 7, 1941 Attack upon Pearl Harbor Dec. 11, 1941 Congress declares war Executive Order 9066
Korematsu v. US, 1944 a Japanese American, relocated and claimed to be Mexican American to avoid being interned, but was later arrested and convicted of violating an executive order. Korematsu challenged his conviction in the courts saying that the
government did not have the power to issue the relocation orders and that he was being discriminated against based on his race. N The government argued that the evacuation was necessary to protect the country and the federal appeals court agreed. The Court agreed with government and stated that the need to protect the country was a greater priority than the individual rights of the Japanese and Japanese Americans. While the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the camps due to "military necessity," that same year, it also ruled in Ex parte Endo that those who'd proven their loyalty to the United States couldn't be detained. 442nd Regimental Combat Team Reparations (1988) Civil Liberties Act of 1988
Through the efforts of leaders and advocates of the Japanese American community, Congress passed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Popularly known as the Japanese American Redress Bill, this act acknowledged that "a grave injustice was done" and mandated Congress to pay each victim of internment $20,000 in reparations. The reparations were sent with a signed apology from the President on behalf of the American people. The period for reparations ended in August of 1998. A Japanese family returns home to find their garage vandalized with graffiti and broken windows in Seattle, on May 10, 1945. Despite this redress, the mental and physical health impacts of the
trauma of the internment experience continue to affect tens of thousands of Japanese Americans. Health studies have shown a 2 times greater incidence of heart disease and premature death among former internees, compared to non-interned Japanese Americans. War Machine Massive military orders (over $100 billion in 1942) ended the Great Depression by creating demand for jobs and production. Shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser, Sir Lauchalot, 1 ship = 14 days War Production Board halted manufacture of nonessential
items such as passenger cars Japanese seized vital rubber supplies in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies U.S. imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing to save tires. Farmers rolled out more food, but the new sudden spurt in production made prices soar; Office of Price Administration. While labor unions pledged not to strike during the war, some did anyway. United Mine Workers, John L. Lewis. Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act, 1943 which let the federal government seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes.
Person Power 15 million men and 216,000 women, women in arms WAACS (army), WAVES (navy), SPARS (coast guard). Bracero Program brought Mexican workers to America to work.
Rosie the Riveter, and upon wars end, they did not return to their homes as in World War I. Exaggerated, (2/3 did return home) Baby Boom Wartime Migrations F.D.R. used the war as an excuse to pump lots of money into the stagnant South to revitalize it, helping to start the blossoming of the Sunbelt. Still, some 1.6 million blacks left the South for better places, and explosive tensions developed over black housing, employment, and segregation facilities. A. Philip Randolph, leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping
Car Porters, threatened a Negro March to Washington in 1941 to get better rights and treatment. Fair Employment Practices Commission to discourage racism and oppression in the workplace they still used the war as a rallying cry against dictators abroad and racism at homeoverall gaining power and strength. Membership to the NAACP (500k); Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), was founded in 1942. Wartime Migrations 1944, Mechanical Cotton picker: no need for manual labor.
Blacks left the South and took up residence in urban areas. Native Americans also left their reservations during the war, finding work in the cities or joining the army. Some 25,000 Native Americans were in the army, and the Navajo and Comanches were code talkers, relaying military orders in the own languagea code that was never broken Rubbing of Races 1943 attack on some Mexican-American navy men in Los Angeles Detroit race riot that killed 25 blacks and 9 whites.
Holding the Home Front America Thrives Gross national product x2, Corporate profits x2 warfare-welfare state The wartime bill amounted to more than $330 National Debt: $49 billion to $259 billion (war cost = $10 million per hour at one point).
Rising Sun of the Pacific The Japanese conquering Guam, Wake, the Philippines, Hong Kong, British Malaya, Burma (in the process cutting the famed Burma Road), the Dutch East Indies, and even pushed into China. When the Japanese took over the Philippines, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur vowed to return to liberate the islands
After the fighters in the Philippines surrendered, they were forced to make the infamous 85-mile Bataan death march. Bataan They were beaten, and they were starved as they marched. Those who fell were bayoneted. Some of those who fell were beheaded by Japanese officers who were practicing with their samurai swords from horseback. The Japanese culture at that time reflected the view that any warrior who surrendered had no honor; thus was not to be treated like a human being. Thus they were not committing crimes against human beings.[...] The Japanese soldiers at that time [...] felt they
were dealing with subhumans and animals US Congressman Dana Rohrabachar Bataan These brutal reprisals upon helpless victims evidence the shallow advance from savagery which the Japanese people have made. [...] We serve notice upon the Japanese military and political leaders as well as the Japanese people that the future of the Japanese race itself, depends entirely and irrevocably upon their capacity to progress beyond their aboriginal barbaric instincts General George Marshall
High Tide at Midway Japanese onrush was finally checked in the Coral Sea, where American and Australian forces check them, and when the Japanese tried to seize Midway Island, they were forced back by U.S. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz Admiral Raymond A. Spruance also helped in this Victory marked the turning point in the war in the Pacific. island hopping, where the Allies would bypass heavily fortified islands, take over neighboring islands, and starve the resistant forces to death with lack of supplies and constant bombing saturation
Dropping of the Bomb Although the war against Germany was won, most of Europe was in ruins. Thus, it was up to the United States to defeat Japan, who refused to surrender. n President Harry Truman (who took over when Roosevelt died in 1945) faced a difficult decision Dropping the Bomb
On August 6, 1945, the United States used its massive, secret weapon against Hiroshima, Japan. This atomic bomb, equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT, flattened the city, killing tens of thousands of civilians. While Japan was still trying to comprehend this devastation, three days later the United States struck again, this time dropping an atom bomb on Nagasaki. Enola Gay
Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., pilot of the ENOLA GAY, the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, waves from his cockpit before the takeoff. Hiroshima Story of Hiroshima
"The mushroom cloud itself was a spectacular sight, a bubbling mass of purple-gray smoke and you could see it had a red core in it and everything was burning inside. . .[I]t looked like lava or molasses covering a whole city Staff Sergeant George Caron, tail gunner The cloud is estimated to have reached a height of 40,000 feet. Hiroshima
Captain Robert Lewis, the co-pilot, stated, "Where we had seen a clear city two minutes before, we could no longer see the city. We could see smoke and fires creeping up the sides of the mountains. Two-thirds of Hiroshima was destroyed. Within three miles of the explosion, 60,000 of the 90,000 buildings were demolished. Clay roof tiles had melted together. Shadows had imprinted on buildings and other hard surfaces. Metal and stone had melted. Hiroshima
The atomic bomb that exploded over Hiroshima killed civilian women and children in addition to soldiers. Hiroshima's population has been estimated at 350,000; approximately 70,000 died immediately from the explosion and another 70,000 died from radiation within five years. The appearance of people was . . . well, they all had skin blackened by burns. . . . They had no hair because their hair was burned, and at a glance you couldn't tell whether you were looking at them from in front or in back. . .their skin - not only on their hands, but on their faces and bodies too - hung down. . If there had been only one or two such people . . . perhaps I would not have had such a strong impression. But wherever I walked I met these people. . . . Many of them died along the road - I can still picture them in my mind - like walking ghosts.
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