Notes: 1945 through the 1950s. LG: Analyze life and culture in America in the post-war era as we entered the 1950s and the Cold War.
1. Post WWII: Origins of the Cold War a. At the end of WWII only 2 major powers were left standing; USA & USSR. i. Both sides had opposing beliefs and ideas for post-WWII Europe.
b. WWII ends and the Cold War starts. i. Cold War: i. From 1945-1991, an international competition of military, social, economic, and political ideologies between communism and democracy. - Each side tried to win the hearts and minds of people.
- Neither side militarily fought each of directly, thus the cold. On a Half Sheet of Paper 1. What were the USs and the USSRs economic systems? 2. Which side believed more in human rights and trading
with other nations? 3. Which country and belief do you think would lead to that country militarily taking over other countries? 4. Which 2 beliefs you think would cause the most conflict between the US & USSR.
American Leaders Believed - Economic growth = peace. - Capitalism was the best
route to prosperity. - Economic growth and security should be promoted by increasing world trade.
- Democracies protecting peoples rights made countries more stable and resistant to communism. Soviet Leaders Believed
- Communism was superior; everyones equal. - Communism would eventually replace
capitalism. - Communism should be encouraged in other nations. - Capitalist countries would
try to destroy communism; approach with suspicion. c. The differences emerge in WWII conferences of the Big 3. i. Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945.
- Divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones controlled by the Allies, start the United Nations, and Stalin pledges free democratic elections in most of E. Europe (Lol jk, said Stalin).
President Harry Truman is responsible for the setting the tone for the US in the Cold War d. Potsdam Conference, Apr. 1945
i. Serious differences emerge when deciding life after WWII. d. Potsdam Conference, Apr. 1945 i. Serious differences emerge when deciding life after WWII. ii. Soviet Views:
- Wanted to keep control of E. Europe to prevent being invaded AGAIN; security. iii. US Views: - Europe WANTS democracy! - Resist and fight Stalins demands NOW & HARD.
*** The UNITED NATIONS (UN) Out with LoN, in with UN in 1945. Same mission as LoN, but now everyone realizes this is needed and commits to it.
2. The Cold War Abroad in the 40s and 50s A. Competition heats up throughout the world as the USA & USSR become strong rivals and compete with one another in many arenas. B. The United Nations, 1946 is created.
i. 5 countries on the permanent security council. C. Iron Curtain, 1946 descends ; Democratic West vs. Communist East. N A NE
M I U R R T
T C O D The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign
policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, when he pledged to contain communist threats
in Greece and Turkey. Set the tone we would support the fight against Communism N-EWhere. D. USAs containment strategy is formed. i. Keep communism where it is DONT LET IT EXPAND. - Marshall Plan, 1947: More Trade = Less Wars
+ Economic aid for countries to rebuild; must meet US terms. + Build trading partners and prevent growth of communism. - NATO, 1949: Formal international organization/treaty to defend against communism. + USSR responds by forming the Warsaw Pact in 1954. E. Nuclear Proliferation spreads: Rapid expansion & growth of nuclear weapons.
i. USSR gets A-Bomb in 1949, US gets H-Bomb in 53/USSR in 54, GROWTH! F. Cold War Events 1945 through the 1950s. i. Marshall Plan, Berlin Airlift, China turns Communist, The 2nd Red Scare, The Korean War, Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba, and Sputnik!
The Cold War Comes Home 1945, Soviet documents shows plans to infiltrate American society. - Brought to the US by a Soviet
defector. - Oh boy, here we goooo.. Igor Gouzenko 3. Cold War at Home 1940s to 1950s
a. The threat of communism grows again in the USA after WWII. - China falls to communism and USSR gets the A-Bomb in 1949. i. Loyalty Review Boards investigate un-American govt. workers. ii. House Un-American Activities Committee: Went after a broad range of Americans, not just govt. workers now; actors to union reps.
- Could question, interrogate, and blacklist people from jobs. - Notable Cases: The Hollywood Ten, Alger Hiss (State Dept. Official), and the Rosenbergs (executed). - Was the threat real or just hysteria?
b. McCarthyism (Early Fifties) i. A tactic of damaging reputations with vague and unfounded charges. ii. He says he can produce a list of commies. THE LIST!?!?! Still waiting iii. People were afraid of being blacklisted and losing their jobs; many did. - McCarthy called out anyone and everyone!
- Bullied witnesses! - President didnt even come out and openly criticize McCarthy. - American people began to suspect more commies in the govt!!! iv. Ended when he went against the US Army. - Could not provide the evidence!
4. Post WWII Prosperity of the 40s and 50s a. America is one of the last countries left standing, many factors collide to make America EXTREMELY prosperous on never before seen levels.
i. Demobilization: Millions of soldiers come home and want things and families. ii. G.I. Bill of Rights: Govt. gave benefits to veterans; low interest loans to start a business or buy a house and tuition $ for college.
iii. Baby Boom: Birth rate surges for over a decade when veterans return home. Families are growing tremendously. iv. Employment Act of 1946: Promoted max production and jobs.
v. America- the Worlds Leading Producer: Last man standing - 50% of world manufacturing, 57% of steel, 62% of oil, 80% of automobiles, and 43% of the electricity. vi. GNP and Income Double/Unemployment stays around 4%.
vii. The Interstate Highway System & Suburbs: Highways become backbone to the economy & new Suburbs expand the housing market. 5. Civil Rights Movement Gains
Momentum a. Post WWII prosperity did not reach everyone and MANY longstanding racial problems still persisted; 40s and 50s brings change. b. Foundational problems i. 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, but was it really freedom? ii. Plessy v. Ferguson: Separate, but Equal is okay.
ii. Black Codes, Sharecropping, the KKK, and the Jim Crow Laws. iii. The military was still segregated in WWII!!! *** The change is starting c. Change
i. NAACP, National Urban League, and Churches mobilize African Americans. - Leaders like MLK and Malcolm X start to emerge. ii. Great Migration to the North during WWI &WWII. iii. 1942, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE):
i. Use peaceful sit-ins. ii. Result: Many Northern businesses integrate WORKS! iv. WWII Double V Campaign: Beat Hitlers racism and racism at home.
v. 1948, Executive Order 9981: i. Desegregates the armed forces. ii. Sets a tone that the federal government should enforce desegregation; should not be left to state and local govt.
vi. 1954, Brown v. the Board of Education i. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in public schools. ii. Desegregate public schools with all deliberate speed. vii. Other events: Challenging desegregation, Montgomery Bus Boycott,
Rise of MLK and Malcolm X, Littlerock, Freedom Rides, and CR Laws.
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