Mitosis and the Cell Cycle DNA Organization in Prokaryotes Circular Chromosome
Plasmids Genome Prokaryote No Nucleus No membrane bound organelles
Prokaryote Reproduction Asexual Reproduction 1 parent Offspring identical to parent 100% of DNA comes from that parent
Binary Fission Not mitosis because there is no nucleus All eukaryotic organisms contain DNA that is loosely
wrapped around proteins called histones. This loose arrangement of DNA and histone proteins is called chromatin. Before cell division in
eukaryotic cells, the parent cell copies its DNA. This is called DNA replication Before cell division in eukaryotic cells, the parent cell copies its DNA (DNA replication).
Later, the chromatin coils up tightly into X-shaped chromosomes (they are X-shaped because they are duplicated chromosomes). The two sides of each X-shaped chromosome are identical copies of DNA called chromatids or sister chromatids. (Remember, one copy of the DNA was created
during DNA replication.) The chromatids are connected by the centromere. 1.Centromere 2.Kinetochore 3.Spindle Fibers
Somatic (diploid) vs. Gametes (haploid) Why Divide??? Not enough DNA: DNA overload
Not enough membrane: divide to get a higher SA:V Cant get needed materials in fast enough or bad wastes out fast enough **Its a little more complicated than this, but well learn more details in Unit 6 Part 3.
Cell Cycle vs. Mitosis vs. Cytokinesis Interphase normal cell activities (90% of time) G1 (Growth through production of organelles) S (Synthesis of DNA)
G2 (Makes items needed for division) Sometimes G0 (Stage of non-division) offshoot of G1 Mitosis making identical diploid daughter cells
Unicellular Organisms Multicellular Organisms Reproduction only Replacing cells that die from normal wear and tear Growth and development from a single
fertilized egg (zygote) Reproduce asexually (ex: plants can grow by grafting / cutting) What does the cell need to divide? 1.Mitotic Spindle
2.Microtubules 3.Centrosome 4.Centriole 5.Motor Protein PROPHASE
Steps of MITOSIS PROPHASE 1. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus is
broken down 2. Chromatin coils into chromosomes 3. Centrioles migrate toward opposite poles (plants DONT have centrioles) 4. Spindle forms
METAPHASE Steps of MITOSIS
METAPHASE Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes Chromosomes align on the equatorial plane
ANAPHASE Steps of MITOSIS ANAPHASE
Spindle fibers pull chromatids apart and move to opposite ends Other spindle fibers lengthen the cell TELOPHASE
Steps of MITOSIS TELOPHASE chromosomes stop moving and
uncoil into chromatin Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reform Mitotic spindle breaks down Which Stage?
Which Stage? Which Stage? Which Stage?
*CYTOKENISIS IS NOT A PART OF MITOSIS* Phases of Mitosis Plant vs. Animal Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow
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