Area w/ a city & surrounding land/villages Rivals fought over land/water; led by military leaders Government:
Leader to maintain city walls & irrigation; led armies; enforced laws; had ppl to collect taxes Sumerian Civilization Society: Had social hierarchy (system of ranking groups)
High class = ruling fam, lead officials, high priests Mid class = lesser priests, scribes, merchants, artisans Low class = most people; peasant farmers Women never = to men Sumerian Civilization
Religion: Polytheistic (had many gods) Gods controlled life good/bad Ziggurats for worship Big temples dedicated to citys main god/goddess
Afterlife = underworld with no escape Sumerian Civilization Writing: Invented 1st known form cuneiform Wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets
Later made symbols The End & Impact of Sumer
Armies came in & took over Sumerian civs replaced by new ones Cuneiform adapted by others studied astronomy & dev a # sys Impacted dev of western world Unit 1: Middle East & Egypt Invaders, Traders, & Empire Builders First Empires In Mesopotamia
Whats an empire? Group of states/areas ruled by one person Diff ppl/groups in Fertile Crescent Powerful leaders created big empires First Empires in Mesopotamia Sargon ruler of Akkad (next to Sumer) Invaded/took over Sumer ~ 2300 BC Built 1st empire in history
Empire fell after his death Sumer came back / invaded again Hammurabi & His Code Hammurabi King of Babylon; empire = most of Mesopotamia ~ 1790 BC Created set of laws: Hammurabis Code ~300 on stone pillars for ppl to see 1st written laws
Est civil law private rights/issues protect the poor/powerless (women, slaves) Orderly home makes stable empire Hammurabi & His Code Dealt w/ criminal law crimes against others Set specific punishments an eye for an eye and a life for a life
New Empires, New Ideas Hittites: 1400 BC 1200 BC Used iron to make tools/weapons Assyrians: 1350 BC 612 BC Feared warriors 1st to make laws for royal homes Babylon & The Persian Empire Babylon: reestablished as a power in 625 BC
One of largest/best cities Hanging Gardens: 1 of 7 wonders of ancient world Fell to Persians in 539 BC Persian Empire = largest ever seen Persian Empire Persian Empire Diverse groups of ppl
Persian kings to accept conquered ppl Real unity w/ emperor Darius I (522-486 BC) Est provinces called satrapies; had governor - satrap Persian Empire Changes under Darius Barter economy before traded / no $ Began using coins / created early $ economy New religion Zoroastrianism by Persian thinker
Zoroaster No to Persian gods; thought 1 god ruled world; ideas of heaven/hell & judgment day The Phoenicians Ppl/small state by east Mediterranean coast sailors & traders Expanded manufacturing & trade Had colonies all over
Est alphabet - led to current alphabet Unit 1: Middle East & Egypt Egypt: The Kingdom on the Nile Egypt & The Nile River Egypt & The Nile River
Farmers came for fertile/valuable land Became powerful civ & relied on Nile River Surrounded by desert (red land); hot/dry Prob not survive w/out Niles black land Nile flooded every spring Needed for crops
Egypt Shaped by Geography Ppl had to manage the water Made ways to channel & store water for dry season
Irrigation sys Egypt Shaped by Geography Had 2 main regions Upper Egypt (south) / Lower Egypt (north) United by Menes, King of Upper Egypt, ~ 3100 BC Nile linked them & used as trade route
Egypts Kingdoms 3 main time periods: Old Kingdom: ~2575-2130 BC Middle Kingdom: ~1938-1630 BC New Kingdom: ~1539-1075 BC
Power passed from one dynasty to another Stayed united The Old Kingdom Pharaohs (kings) built strong govt Pharaohs seen as humans AND gods w/total power & own/rule all land Wanted justice & order
Diff jobs & levels of power in govt The Old Kingdom Vizier watched over business of govt Tombs built in pyramids = pharaohs eternal home
Great Pyramids at Giza The Middle Kingdom Old Kingdom fell After 100+ yrs new pharaohs reunited land MK was turbulent time hard; ups/downs ~ 1700 BC Hyksos invade/take over New military ideas - horse drawn war chariots
rule lasted 100+ years The New Kingdom Powerful pharaohs; made huge empire Powerful Rulers: Hatshepsut: 1st female ruler 1472-1458 BC
Thutmose III: her stepson; grew territory; great military general The New Kingdom Powerful Rulers: Ramses II: ruled 60 years (1279-1213 BC); best known
Battles with Neighbors: Faught Hittites during Ramses II Signed 1st known peace treaty Fighting & trading w/ Nubia to the south Decline of Egypt Egyptian power declined after 1100 BC Assyrians & Persians invade/take over Nile
332 BC: last Egyptian dynasty ended Greeks took control Romans took from Greeks in 30 BC UNIT 1: MIDDLE EAST & EGYPT Ancient Egyptian Civilization
Religion & Life Religion part of daily life Sun god was main god Osiris important
God of the dead & Nile Afterlife Promised eternal life by Osiris & goddess Isis Had to pass test
Judged by Osiris Sinners fed to Eater of the Dead Worthy ppl entered Happy Field of Food
Used Book of the Dead to make it through underworld Preparing for the Afterlife Dead buried with possessions Mummification preserved the body
Embalmed & wrapped in cloth Process took 90 days (3 months) Tombs Pharaohs buried in tombs with treasures
Bodies in solid gold coffins - sarcophagus Often robbed King Tut Society
Egypt had a class system (hierarchy) Society Most were peasant farmers or slaves Ppl move up easily during NK bc of trade
& warfare Women had more opportunity Could get property, divorce, do business Not confined to home Still below men
Advances Dev diff writing systems
Hieroglyphics carved in stone by priests/scribes Hieratic & demotic everyday use Paper from papyrus plant Rosetta Stone black stone used to figure out
hieroglyphics Medicine cures, symptoms, diagnosis, ops Astronomy made calendar Developed geometry Arts & Literature Arts:
Buildings (pyramids), statues, tomb paintings - gods/pharaohs shown larger WHY??? Showed everyday life or ppl w/ animal
heads Literature: Poems, hymns, prayers, folk tales Unit 1: Middle East & Egypt Egypt: Roots of Judaism
Ancient Israelites & Judaism Ancient Israelites dev Judaism ~ 4000 years ago Today = major faith Israelites = monotheistic believe in one god All Gods plan Torah - sacred text of Israelites (Jews) Ancient Israelites
~ 2000 yrs ago Abraham moved to Canaan Abraham = father of Israelites Believed God made covenant w/ Abraham (a binding agreement) Israelites forced to Egypt & made slaves Moses led their exodus (departure) from Egypt back to Canaan
Ancient Israelites Kingdom of Israel est. in Canaan ~ 1000 BC Feuding 12 tribes unite under 2nd King, David Davids son, Solomon, turned Jerusalem into great capital city Kingdom split when he died & fell to Assyrians & Babylonians Israelite Society & Judaism
Patriarchal society men had authority Law was central Torah had laws about most things (cleanliness, food, crime) 10 Commandments in Torah Moral conduct & religious duty: Keeping the Sabbath, holy day of rest & worship Israelite Society & Judaism Prophets, spiritual leaders, part of history/society
Urged social justice; taught strong code of ethics (moral standards of behavior) During time period Diaspora, Jews left/were exiled from Israel Spread around world Christianity & Islam grew out of Judaism
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