The Science of Infectious Diseases

The Science of Infectious Diseases

The Science of Infectious Diseases Bacterial Infections and Viral Infections Bacterial Infections vs. Viral Infections Nonliving, do not have cells Unicellular, living organisms Can be helpful to humans Can be killed with antibiotic medication Reproduce on their own asexually Examples: tetanus, cholera, staphylococcus, STDs (syphilis, gonorrhea), tuberculosis, pneumonia, bubonic plague Infectious

agents that can make people sick Can Cause: fever, fatigue, and general malaise Need a host organism Always harmful Antiviral medication will slow reproduction, but cannot destroy virus Smaller than bacteria Examples: common cold, chicken pox, influenza, Ebola, HIV/AIDS

Video The Plague There are three forms of the Plague Bubonic (most common) Septicemic Pneumonic The Bubonic Plague the Black Death Fatality 30% - 60% if left untreated Transmission Yersinia Pestis bacteria Zoonotic bacteria transmitted from animals (usually fleas) to humans The bacteria enters at the bite and travels through the lymphatic system

and begins replication in the nearest lymph node Major Outbreaks First recorded Byzantine Empire estimated 25 50 million dead Second 1340 1400 Europe Originated in China and spread to Italy and throughout Europe Killed about 20 million Third mid 19th century began in Asia estimated 10 million deaths The Bubonic Plague the Black Death Symptoms Incubation period 3 to 7 days Flu-like symptoms: sudden onset fever, chills, head and body-aches and weakness, vomiting, and nausea

Bubo the lymph nodes become inflamed, tense and painful, they can even become open sores Treatment Historically: A good diet, rest, and relocation for clean air The movement of infected patients actually caused the Plague to spread Now: Antibiotics and supportive therapy are effective if the patient is diagnosed in time Isolation to stop the spread Vaccinations have been available in the past but were not deemed effective Ebola virus disease (EVD) Fatality

Rate 50% average Fatality rates vary from outbreak to outbreak 25% to 90% Outbreaks Initial - villages in Central Africa as well as Sudan in 1976 Most recent - West Africa in major urban and rural areas 2014 Transmission Human-to-human via direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people People remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus Ebola virus disease (EVD) Symptoms Incubation period the time interval from infection to onset of

symptoms can be between 2 and 21 days Humans are not infectious until symptoms develop First symptoms: fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat Followed by: vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases internal and external bleeding Treatment Supportive care (rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids) Treatment of symptoms Currently no licensed vaccines however 2 potential vaccines are undergoing human safety testing HIV and AIDS Human Immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Fatality

World-wide and estimated 39 million people have died from HIV/AIDS An estimated 35 million people were living with HIV in 2013 3.2 million of these are children 2.1 million of these were new infections Origination The first recognized case of AIDS occurred in the USA in 1980s There is still no clear answer on where HIV/AIDS came from Scientists/doctors believe it was transmitted from Chimpanzees, as it is very similar to SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus) HIV and AIDS Human Immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Transmission HIV can be transmitted if you come into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person Unprotected sex IV drug use Child birth (although less common) AIDS is not transmitted, it is the term used to identify late stage HIV HIV and AIDS Human Immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Symptoms Sympotms vary from patient to patient and throughtout different stages of the virus

Stages Early Stage time immediately following infection, may experience flu-like symptoms "worst flu ever" this is the body's reaction to the infection Clinical Latency No symptoms Virus slowly replicates Still able to transmit virus to others Progression to AIDS The virus has weakened the immune system and patients may experience many symptoms The symptoms may actually be caused by various opportunistic infections HIV and AIDS

Human Immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Treatment Originally doctors did not know how to treat HIV/AIDS and many people died from opportunistic infections Today many people are living with HIV/AIDS and are managing the disease for decades Antiviral medications can put the viral load (amount of HIV/AIDS in the blood of an infected person) to such low levels that they are undetectable There currently is no cure and no vaccine Zika virus Fatality people rarely die from Zika, the biggest issue is the effect it can have on an unborn child Transmission

Through mosquito bites - Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites. From mother to child - A pregnant woman can pass Zika virus to her fetus during pregnancy. Zika is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. We are studying the full range of other potential health problems that Zika virus infection during pregnancy may cause. A pregnant woman already infected with Zika virus can pass the virus to her fetus during the pregnancy or around the time of birth. Through sexual contact - Zika virus can be spread by a man to his sex partners. In known cases of sexual transmission, the men developed Zika virus symptoms. From these cases, we know the virus can be spread when the man has symptoms, before symptoms start and after symptoms resolve. The virus is present in semen longer than in blood. Through blood transfusion - As of February, 1, 2016, there have not been any confirmed blood transfusion transmission cases in the United States. There have been multiple reports of blood transfusion transmission cases in Brazil. These reports are currently being investigated. Risks -Anyone who lives in or travels to an area where Zika virus is found and has not already been infected with Zika virus can get it from mosquito bites. Once a person has been

infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections. Zika virus Symptoms Most people infected with Zika virus wont even know they have the disease because they wont have symptoms. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week. See your doctor or other healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to a place where Zika has been reported. Be sure to tell your doctor or other healthcare provider where you traveled. The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week. People usually dont get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely

die of Zika. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected. Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week but it can be found longer in some people. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections. Zika virus Treatment There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat Zika virus.

Treat the symptoms: Get plenty of rest. Drink fluids to prevent dehydration. Take medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or paracetamol to reduce fever and pain. Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of bleeding. If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your doctor or other healthcare provider before taking additional medication. If you have Zika, prevent mosquito bites for the first week of your illness. During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to a mosquito through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people.

Top 5 deadliest infectious diseases all viruses Preventing Infections both bacterial and viral Wash hands often Cover your mouth when sneezing or coughing Take proper care of cuts/wounds

Good Bacteria Not all bacteria will cause illness Some positives of bacteria Help with digestion Used in wine making, backing, pickling, culturing of yogurt and cheese Treatment of water Fermentation of ethanol and biogas Commercial and industrial production Used in Science - biotechnology, genetics and molecular biology Resources World

Health Organization http://www.who.int/en/ Center for Disease Control http://www.cdc.gov AIDS.gov http://www.aids.gov

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