The Crucible - Weebly

The Crucible - Weebly

THE CRUCIBLE Playwright, Screenwriter, Author: Arthur Miller Born in Harlem, New York in 1915 Attended the University of Michigan Famous Plays: The Crucible, Death of a Salesman, All My Sons First marriage to Mary Slattery had two children Second marriage to Marilyn Monroe ending in divorce Third marriage to Inge Morath resulting in two children

one a son with down syndrome who Miller refused to have contact with till his son-in-law persuaded him Persecuted during the Red Scare Died in 2005 at the age of 89 Salem Massachusetts in Arthur Millers The Crucible Salem 1630: Pioneer Village The Crucible What We Know:

In Arthur Millers The Crucible, the town of Salem, Massachusetts is thrown into chaos when a group of girls are found dancing in the woods with a black slave - believed to be practicing witchcraft. When these compromised girls are brought forward for questioning, they began accusing several prominent citizens of being witches and communing with the Devil, thereby igniting accusation and suspicion in the hypocritical town. Before long, the Salem Witch Trials begin, and family values and friendships are tested as everyone eagerly seeks to cover up their own sins

The Crucible Definition: Know the following for your unit quiz: A crucible is a vessel in which metals are heated to extremely high temperatures, melted down and purified. The play, The Crucible, shows a community which ignites and burns with accusations of witchcraft, mass hysteria and retribution. Overview, A Closer Look: In January 1692, the Salem witch trials began and

changed life dramatically for the small farming community of Salem Village, part of the Massachusetts Bay colony. Believing themselves as God's chosen people, the Puritan inhabitants of the village followed a strict Puritan code of hard work and religious devotion. They remained vigilant to the workings of the devil in their everyday lives and were dedicated to rooting out evil wherever they perceived its existence. Overview, A Closer Look:

However, harsh winters and a lack of productive crop made it both difficult to survive as well as economically prosper. Life was much more difficult than the Puritans had thought, and this brought about doubt, fear, and mistrust amongst the Salem community. After being amused with magical tales of the West Indies by a Barbados-born slave named Tituba, two young Puritan girls began exhibiting peculiar symptoms, ranging from catatonic (immobile) states to bodily contortions. Unable to find a medical explanation for their unusual behavior, the local religious authorities deemed it witchcraft. The magistrates, determined to locate and eradicate the source

of the bewitchment, commenced a series of trials lasting for almost one year. Overview, A Closer Look: In an effort to save themselves from the fate of witches, judges ordered death by hanging. Hysteria grew as neighbor turned on neighbor, which ultimately led to the execution of approximately twenty Salem citizens. Finally in 1710, some, but not all, of the accused were exonerated. In 1957 the state of Massachusetts officially cleared the names of all

accused witches. The Salem Witch Trials http:// www.history.com/topics/salem-witch-trials/videos/s alem-witch-trials Think. Ink. Pair. Share. Think about the questions below first. Write down your answers at least a page. I will tell you when you can turn to a partner to share. What happened during the Salem Witch Trials? What do you think caused the hysteria? Why do you

think that? How might this play be relevant in todays society? Three Volunteers to Share Answers Historical Context: Guilt by association, unexamined testimony, judges blinded by their biases, and individuals determined to use the system of justice when no evidence of a crime existed These kinds of social and/or political problems did

not go away with the completion of those trials. Believe it or not, the United States again saw a similar type witch-hunt in 1950 to 1956not that long ago. This period in American History is known as McCarthyism and the Red Scare! Historical Context: McCarthyism During the McCarthy era (roughly 1950-56), thousands of Americans were accused of being communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and

questioning before government. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the Hollywood entertainment industry, educators and union activists. Suspicions were often given credibility despite inconclusive or questionable evidence, and the level of threat posed by a person's supposed Communist affiliation or beliefs was often greatly exaggerated. Historical Context: McCarthyism Many people suffered loss of employment and/or destruction of their careers; some even suffered

imprisonment. Most of these punishments came about through trial verdicts that were later overturned, laws that were later declared unconstitutional, and/or dismissed for reasons later declared illegal. If youve ever seen the movie or want to see the movie J. Edgar (2011 Leonardo DiCaprio), youll see that Senator McCarthy supported J. Edgar Hoover and his self-titled House on Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC); and the various anti-communist activities of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Connection: In fact, there is even more of a connection than just the similarities between The Salem Witch Trials and the McCarthyism era when it comes to author Arthur Miller. Believe it or not, guilt by association and unexamined testimony once again reared their ugly head as Arthur Miller was actually called before Hoovers HUAC committee and was questioned in regards to his beliefs and allegiances to the United States and being a true American. Miller refused to cooperate.

Historical Context The Crucible reflects his unwavering refusal to cooperate with the House of Un-American Activities Committee. Post WWII Fear of Communist spies infiltrating country Called the Red Scare HUAC (House of Un-American Activities Committee) 1938-1975 Leader=Sen. Joseph McCarthy There was a Hollywood Blacklist created

Arthur Miller and The Red Scare Had previously attended Communist Parties Brought before HUAC in 1957 Blacklisted--refused to name names of others at parties; cited for contempt of Congress How does the Red Scare, The Crucible,

and Salem Witch Trials go hand in hand? The Crucible is an Allegory The mirroring of a witchhunt in Salem to looking for communist allowed for Miller to commentary on our society http:// www.shmoop.com/video/the-c rucible Allegory: a story in which

the characters and events are symbols that stand for ideas about human life or for a political or historical situation Topics to look for *Topics turn into themes* Hysteria Fear Theocracy Reputation

Sexual Oppression Honesty Lies and Deceit Persuasion Respect Dilemma Activity Take a sheet of paper out and label it 1-8 Leave at least 3 to 5 lines per number

Answer the questions honestly After everyone has answered all eight questions I will turn on music. When the music plays you should be walking. When the music stops you should find a partner and share your answer for one of the dilemmas. 1 - If you are in love with a married man/woman, is it O.K. to undermine their relationship with their wife/husband? Why/why not? 2 - If you knew your evidence in a court case was going to get your best friend

into trouble and make them look like a liar, would you still give it? Why/why not? 3 - If everyone around you (including people you liked and trusted) believed something which you knew wasnt true, would you stand up for what you knew to be right? Why/why not? 4 - If clearing an innocent persons name was going to mean you were in trouble with the law, would you still do it? Why/why not? 5 - If your wife/husband ignores you and makes you feel bad about yourself, is it O.K. to have an affair? Why/why not? 6 - If you could lie to save your life, even though it would make your friends look bad and go against your principles, would you do it? Why/why not? 7 - Your friends are doing something that you know is wrong and will hurt other people. They have told you that if you didnt go along with them, they would set

you up so you were blamed. Would you go along with it? Why/why not? 8 - If you were guilty of a crime, and accusing someone else were going to get you out of trouble, would you do it? Why/why not? FUN FACTS ABOUT WITCHES AND ACCUSATIONS If you are accused how would you get out of it? TEST #1: BIBLE COMPARISON

They would weigh you against the weighty word of the Bible Result (Witch): if you weighed more or less than the wisdom of the Lord. Result (Innocent): You weighed equal to. How were witches tested? TEST #2: Throw a person off a cliff or

into water. Result: (WITCH) You could fly away or untangle yourself. Result: (INNOCENT) You would drown and die. TEST #3: BURN YOU AT THE STAKE Result: (Witch) If you fly off to

freedom, you are a witch. Result: (Innocent) if not, MONTY PYTHON VIDEO http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=UTdDN_MRe64 Puritan Beliefs Puritanism THE START: A group of Puritans, known

as the Pilgrim Fathers, sailed on The Mayflower to New England in 1620. Their strict religious ways had become unpopular in England, and they sailed to North America to escape religious persecution. Other Puritans and colonists followed. Who were the Puritans?

They wanted to reform their national church by eliminating every shred of Catholic influence Their attempt to purify the Church of England and their own lives was based on the teachings of John Calvin Left for the new world in 1620 to escape religious persecution and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Puritan Life They had a binding

duty to the Church and were ruled by the words of the Bible. If the Bible, therefore, acknowledged the existence of witches then Puritans would believe in their reality. Puritan Beliefs Total depravity:

In Adams fall we sinned all Humankind is totally sinful through the fall of Adam and Eve and damned for eternity. Predestination: You are elect (saved) or unregenerate (damned). Salvation belongs to the elect, or Gods chosen. No good works will help you become saved.

Limited atonement: Christ died only for the elect. Grace: You could feel Gods grace in an intense emotional fashion. After receiving grace, you were reborn have thenceforth full power to do the will of God and the ability to live uprightly to the end.

Puritan Life Puritans lived by a strict code. They kept to simple, plain dress. Men ruled the household, and took all the major decisions. Children knew their place and were expected to be dutiful. Attendance at church was essential and strict records were kept of who attended and who did not. Unnecessary work and household chores on

Sundays were frowned upon. Puritan Beliefs Cont. The Puritan community was a theocracy, a government which blends church and state. The churchs officials were the governments officials. Thus, church and state were not separate. City upon a Hill Theory: That the new MA Colony would be a place of complete reform (utopia) where God would be found in scripture and a strong work ethic.

Education: A strong belief in education was established in order to read the Word of God. The first public school was founded in 1635 and Harvard College became an icon for educating ministers. American National Identity What do we take away from the Puritans, Planters and Pilgrims? Independence, patriotism, industry, practicality, tolerance, These people were the first to build upon

the idea of the American Dream. The idea that a new path could be forged and goals attained. We inherited an emphasis on hard work, a strong sense of religion, duty to country and freedom from oppression. Witchcraft The Church said that witches made a contract with the Devil and that the witches kept a book

with signatures of those contracted to the Devil. The Devil would then work through them and their 'familiars' (evil spirits in the form of an animal - a cat or a toad, for example.) Witchcraft Witches were thought to commit crimes or 'maleficium', such as

making cows sick, turning beer sour, flying broomsticks or causing injury to people. Evidence of Witchcraft the testimony of a fellow witch the common belief/accusation of those who live with the suspected witch cursing or quarrelling being followed by some mischief or mishap the person suspected has the Devil's mark (perhaps a birthmark or

deformity) the person contradicts her/himself when questioned. How it started . . . Betty Parris became strangely ill. She dashed about, dove under furniture, contorted in pain, and complained of fever. The cause of her symptoms may have been some combination of stress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional psychosis. Talk of witchcraft increased when other playmates of Betty, including eleven-year-old Ann Putnam, seventeen-year-old Mercy

Lewis, and Mary Walcott, began to exhibit similar unusual behavior. A doctor called to examine the girls, suggested that the girls' problems might have a supernatural origin. The widespread belief that witches targeted children made the doctor's diagnosis seem increasingly likely. Causes of Witchcraft Hysteria in Salem 1. Strong belief that Satan is acting in the world. 2. A belief that Satan actively recruits witches and wizards 3. A belief that a person afflicted by witchcraft exhibits certain

symptoms. 4. A time of troubles, making it seem likely that Satan was active. 5. Stimulation of imaginations by Tituba (slave). 6. Teenage boredom. 7. Confessing "witches" adding credibility to earlier charges. 8. Old feuds (disputes within congregation, property disputes) between the accusers and the accused spurring charges of witchcraft. Witch Cake Tituba, a slave from Barbados, makes a

witch cake, drawing suspicion on herself. A witch cake is composed of rye meal mixed with urine from the afflicted children. It is then fed to a dog. The person is considered bewitched if the dog displays similar symptoms as the afflicted. Spectral Evidence The girls contorted into grotesque poses, fell down into frozen postures, and complained of biting and pinching sensations. In a village where everyone believed that the devil was real, close at hand, and acted in the real world, the suspected affliction of

the girls became an obsession. The Trials By the end of 1692, over 200 people were jailed and standing accused of witchcraft. Hysteria IMPACT Nineteen men and women were hanged, all having been convicted of witchcraft Another man of over eighty years was pressed to death under heavy stones for

refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges Many languished in jail for months without trials At least four died in prison Why the Hysteria Ended 1. Doubts grow when respected citizens are convicted and executed. 2. Accusations of witchcraft include the powerful and well-connected. 3. The educated elite of Boston pressure Gov. Phips to

exclude spectral evidence. 4. Gov. Phips bars spectral evidence and disbands the Court Group Activity Students will break into five groups. Each group will start with a topic that they will research using the materials provided. Together each student will write their own notes about the topic they are given. You are the masters of this topic and this will be the place you report out about when you finish. After 30 minutes of research, the groups will report out. All

students must take notes on the topics they did not research. This will help you with your seminar and research later. Group Presentations Please go sit with group members. TOPICS: The Salem Witch Trials Japanese Internment Camps McCarthy Hearings

Robert Robertson Case The Memphis Three Muslim Stereotyping/Profiling post 9/11 Jim Crow Laws German American Internment The Lavender Scare Ebola SHARE REFLECTION What similarities do you see with each of these presentations? What do you think is the cause of hysteria?

Can you avoid it? Warm-up Act III 1. What is Abigails vision? 2.What does Danforths reaction to Giles outburst at the beginning of the act suggest about his character? 3. Why does the court debate whether Proctor plows on Sunday? What is the significance of this debate? 4. When John reveals his true relationship to Abigail, what do you think he also reveals about his character and his motivation? ACT III

QUESTIO NS T HE C RU C I B L E Please an swer the f ollowing q group eith uestion(s) er as or a in your

ft er you finis The Cruc h reading ible. Make Act III of s u r e you are parts of yo answering

ur assigne AL L d question examples s. Use dir from the p ect lay to bac k-up your answers. Group 1

Why do Giles and Francis want to see Deputy Danforth? What two men burst into the courtroom unexpectedly and are accused of disrespecting the court? What does Mary tell Deputy Danforth? Group 2 According to Act III, why isnt Proctor considered a good Christian? What did the paper say that 91 people signed? What does John Proctor find out about his wife from Danforth? What does Elizabeth do that surprises everyone?

Group 3 What reasons does Mary Warren give to Hawthorne to explain why she said she saw spirits? Hawthorne thinks of a test for Maryexplain what is it? What is Mary Warren unable to do that makes her seem like a liar? How does Mary Warren react under the pressure of the girls? Group 4 What does Abigail do when confronted by the judge about whether or not she has been lying?

What does Proctor end up confessing about himself? How does Danforth check Proctors story? What happens to Proctor at the end of Act III, why?

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