The Challenges of Growth

The Challenges of Growth

Chapter 11 Section 4 Objectives Identify the problems faced by Americans moving westward. Describe the impact of the building of the Erie Canal. Discuss the debate over slavery and the Missouri Compromise. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4

Terms and People Daniel Boone a famous early pioneer who helped clear the Wilderness Road turnpike a toll road corduroy road a road made of sawed-off logs laid side by side canal a channel that is dug across land and filled with water Henry Clay a senator who persuaded Congress to adopt the Missouri Compromise The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4 How did Americans move west, and

how did this intensify the debate over slavery? New roads, turnpikes, and canals enabled northerners and southerners to move west. Westward expansion threatened to upset the balance between free and slave states and moved the nation closer to civil war. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4 During colonial times, the backcountry

between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains was considered the western frontier. The Challenges of Growth By the 1750s, the Scotch-Irish and the Germans of Pennsylvania had begun to settle the backcountry. Chapter

11 Section 4 In 1775, Daniel Boone and others cleared the Wilderness Road, a new route to the West. The road crossed the Appalachian Mountains through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky. The Wilderness Road became the main route across the Appalachians. The Challenges of Growth

Chapter 11 Section 4 By the early 1800s, western populations swelled as immigrants moved west. From 1792 to 1819, eight states joined the Union. The Challenges of Growth Chapter

11 Section 4 Traveling west was not easy, because settlers used paths worn by animals as their roads. These roads were unpaved, dotted with tree stumps, and easily washed out by rain. Some capitalists decided to build better roads so commerce could flow more easily. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4

Private companies began to build turnpikes. Travelers on these roads had to pay a toll in order to pass. In marshy areas, wagons traveled on corduroy roads, which were hazardous to horses. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4

In 1795, a private company in Pennsylvania built a turnpike between Lancaster and Philadelphia. The Lancaster Turnpike was the first longdistance stone road in the United States. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4

Traveling by road was slow, however, and people began to think about building canals so they could ship goods by water. Work on the Erie Canal, which would connect the Hudson River and Lake Erie, began in 1817. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4

Because the land in upstate New York is not level, locks were built to raise or lower boats in the canal. The workers that built the canal were mostly Irish immigrants. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4 The Erie Canal was very successful. Within two years of its opening in 1825, the Erie Canal had paid for itself. It sparked a surge of canal building. Because it was at the end of the canal, New York soon became the richest city in

the United States. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4 Westward expansion strengthened the United States, but it also caused disagreements over the extension of slavery. In 1819, the United States consisted of 11 free states, which prohibited

slavery, and 11 slave states, which permitted slavery. The Challenges of Growth Free States Slave States Chapter 11 Section 4 However, Missouri had been seeking admission to the United States as a slave state since 1817. Northerners did not want to add a

slave state to the United States. It was important to maintain a balance between representation of slave states and free states in the Senate. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4 A solution to the problem presented itself when Maine, a state that prohibited slavery, applied for admission to the Union. In 1820, Senator Henry Clay persuaded

Congress to adopt the Missouri Compromise. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4 For the North For the South Maine was admitted as a free state. Missouri was

admitted as a slave state. The Louisiana Territory north of the southern Missouri border would be free. Southern slave owners could pursue escaped slaves into free states. The Challenges of Growth Chapter

11 Section 4 The compromise preserved the balance of power between slave and free states. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4 The Missouri Compromise revealed how much sectional rivalries divided the Union. Southerners were unhappy that Congress was

making laws about slavery. In time, the issue of slavery would split the United States. The Challenges of Growth Chapter 11 Section 4 Section Review QuickTake Quiz The Challenges of Growth Know It, Show It Quiz

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