The Cells in Living Things

The Cells in Living Things

Chapter #7 A History of the Atom prepared by Huriye Grsel Key Points Definition of alchemy Why is alchemy not science?

Alchemy / chemistry Atom vs. element Orbitals Timeline of the atom ALCHEMY

Science ~ adventure developed by human beings to understand the universe. Started by gathering useful information which made life easier... Natural

characteristics of human beings: curiosity + making research + thinking ability led to ALCHEMY The Alchemist Frankly, Id be satisfied if I could turn gold into lead! The Alchemists Dream

COPPER SILVER GOLD Zinc coated Brass = Copper + Zinc Penny into Gold - Alchemist Dream Alchemy vs. Chemistry

Alike Different Different Understand the physical world better Trial & Error Method Topic

Alchemy Topic immortality Chemistry Scientific Method Alchemists Alchemists were the forerunners of modern chemists! The history of alchemy is a history of men who were, on one hand,

scientists, and on the other hand, dreamers. There is no way to separate the practical chemistry of the alchemists from their occasional fanciful excursions into the unknown. The early craftsmen who were able to mix a little bit of this with a drop or two of that and come up with startling new materials began to think of what they had done. Wouldnt it be possible, they may have said to themselves, to change common metals into gold or silver? And, if they could find a magic elixir, might they be able to prolong life? These men were protected by the princes, kings, and popes of their day. Men of power, it would seem, always need more wealth. And more health. Alchemists

Alchemy was a medieval, metallurgical, superstition-laden, chemical science with touches of sorcery, religion, and experimentation. But the alchemists laid down the groundwork for modern science. The situation was complex. And in the ranks of the alchemists were crooks, quacks, and frauds. But there were many honest scientists, too. This is their story the story of how some men tried to turn magic into science. I think youve crossed that thin line between transmuting and cooking. Paracelsus Man consisted of three elements

SALT represented the body SULFUR the soul MERCURY the spirit He thought he could rearrange the amounts of the elements to change man. He desired immortality and searched for a mystical elixir of life. The Beginnings early practical chemistry: household goods, weapons,

soap, wine, basic medicine The Greeks believed there were 4 elements: D ___ earth D D

___ air fire water ~ Timeline Greeks (Democratus ~450 BC) Discontinuous

theory of matter 400 BC Greeks (Aristotle ~350 BC)) Continuous theory of matter ALCHEMY 300 AD 1000

Issac Newton (1642 - 1727) 2000 Alchemy In Europe, alchemy was the quest for the Philosophers Stone (the elixir, the Sorcerers Stone). Allegedly, this substance would turn cheap metals into gold. transmutation

changing one substance into another Philosophers Stone COPPER GOLD In ordinary chemical reactions, we cannot transmute elements into different elements.

Alchemy After that 'chemistry' was ruled by alchemy. They believed that that could take any cheap metals and turn them into gold. Alchemists were almost like magicians.

elixirs, physical immortality Alchemy Symbols Alchemy Symbols Alchemy Alchemical symbols for substances GOLD

SILVER COPPER .. . ...... . ..... IRON SAND transmutation: changing one substance into another

D In ordinary chemistry, we cannot transmute elements. Alchemy (~500 1300 A.D.)the quest for the Philosophers Stone It was supposed to change cheap Alchemical symbols for metals into gold. substances

GOLD The Alchemist, by David Teniers .. . .. .......... SILVER COPPER IRON SAND

transmutation: changing one substance into another In ordinary chemistry, we cannot transmute elements. Contributions of alchemists: lab apparatus / procedures how to make some alloys Contributions of alchemists: Information about elements - the elements mercury, sulfur, and antimony were discovered - properties of some elements Develop lab apparatus / procedures / experimental techniques - alchemists learned how to prepare acids.

- developed several alloys - new glassware A Timeline of Chemistry Motivation for Alchemists To discover a mixture for eternal living! To transform metals into gold However, alchemists did not follow a scientific method! Trial error based experiments No Systematic Knowledge

No theories behind Alchemy Chemistry ! ATOM Sources Used Kuantum Dnemi, Robert Crease & Alfred Goldhaber Kimyann yks Popler Bilim Kitaplar

Thomas G. Aylesworth, The Alchemists Magic into Science Addison-Wesley, 1973, pg 11-12. Kimya Popler Bilim Kitaplar Ortaretim Kimya 9 Ders Kitab, Mehmet Gntut

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