Technology Transfer, Knowledge Transfer or Knowledge Exchange ...
PALATINE- Dance Drama and Music DEVELOPING ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDENTS AND GRADUATES Lancaster November 16th 2005 Dr Marilyn Wedgwood Pro-Vice Chancellor THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES - UK Dependency on Graduates High proportion of graduates - 43% compared with 16% work force as a whole - 30-80% depending on the sub -sector
Graduates from creative disciplines more likely to be self-employed - 42% become self employed from 9% of the total UK graduates p.a - 37% of the self employed graduates, 6 months post-graduation A need for graduate entrepreneurship is not being met WHY?............. The creative process is compelling and has market value Creative freedom and ethical considerations Learning by Problem- solving makes independent thinkers Self-employment often the only real option
Accidental entrepreneurship Creative Industries Sector Skills Council Creative & Cultural Skills Classifications in the UK SSC Footprint Related DCMS Sub-sector(1998) Advertising Advertising Crafts
Crafts Design Design Music Music Performing, Literary & Visual Arts Performing Arts Publishing? Publishing
Cultural Heritage ---- Animation Film & Video Commercials Corporate production Skillset Television & Radio Facilities (which includes post production) Film & Video/Television & Radio
Film Film & Video Interactive media Interactive Leisure Software Photo imaging ---- Radio Television Television & Radio
e-skills Information Technology, Telecommunications & Contact Centres Software & Computer Services Skillfast-UK Apparel, footwear and textile industries Designer Fashion Construction Skills Construction Industry (including Architecture)
Architecture None? --- Art & Antiques Market Investing in culture for competitive advantage The UN estimates that creative industries account for 7% global GDP and are growing at 10% per year. As people grow richer and become better educated, they spend more of their income on leisure activities
James Purnell 2005 Minister for Creative Industries Culture and the Economy Beijing, Shanghai and Gunagzhou are aiming to become Asias dominant cultural production centres looking to export, and to make sure that economic value of cultural consumption in the huge domestic market is recouped by chinese companiesits strategy is comprehensive, farsighted, ambitious, well resourced and intelligent it builds partnerships with research centres in universities and larger companies as well as using all sorts of international expertise. It takes in the full range of leisure tourist, sporting, entertainment, high cultural and creative industry sectors..
(Justin OConnor Creative Industries and Regeneration 2005 in production. Manchester Centre for Popular Culture Manchester Metropolitan University) THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES - UK Economic value Worth 11.4 billion to balance of Trade (twice that of the pharmaceutical sector) 8% GDA, 7.9% GDP Produce almost 1 in 12 of UK total GDP Almost 2m people employed 7% of total employment 20% if tourism, hospitality and sport is included Fastest Growing Sector of the Economy Source DCMS, DTi THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES - UK
Characteristics High proportion of self employment(42-80%) Large proportion of small companies/ microbusinesses/ freelancers/ independents Highly networked Complex working portfolios - commonly organised around projects Portfolios of employment Little desire to grow 70% located in metropolitan areas Particular IP issues Dynamic, innovative sector, creativity dependent DEPARTMENT OF CULTURE MEDIA & SPORT HE/FE and the Creative Industries WORKING GROUPS Entrepreneurship
& Skills ------------------------------------ Exploring models of entrepreneurship/self employment Linking with key organisations- NCGE, Sector Skills Councils, enterprise in regions, Cambridge MIT Entrepreneurship ,NESTA, RDA Research & Knowledge Transfer ------------------------------------
Exploring Models of Knowledge transfer & intellectual Property and R&D Linked with Arts and Humanities Research Council Locked into the Science and Innovation ten year framework policy document 2004-14 ---JUST!!!!!!! Graduate Entrepreneurship Capacity 36.8% of the 2.3% of graduates selfemployed ( 6 months post graduation) were from the creative disciplines
Least likely to have a placement opportunity Surveys show they dont feel prepared 50% of Flying Start (NCGE) applicants and participants - but they make up only 9% of the graduates in the UK (24,000) Dont respond well to traditional business models Significant potential - unrealised Cultural entrepreneurs need to develop a mix of creative and business skills often at different stages of their careers. Education institutions are often too inflexible to deliver these skills as and when the entrepreneurs need them (Leadbeater and Oakley, 1999)
EMERGENT APPROACHES FOR ENTREPRENEURIAL LEARNING IN H.E. Extra-curricular Curriculum embedded Postgraduate Programmes Assimilated/tacit learning within programmes; Bolt-on enterprise modules Continuing Professional Development (Lifelong
Learning) Short skills development courses Knowledge Transfer Partners Enterprise Centres Business start-up workshops Summer schools Incubation MA/MBA creative programmes Master of Enterprise External agency programmes NESTA Creative Pioneers, Crafts Council, Design Council, Young Enterprise, National
Council for Graduate Entreprise Flying Start etc Some great Provision but Not Enough Not the right kind Not available at the right time Too piecemeal -Not coherent Enough
Too Little understanding of current provision to make a difference THE CHALLENGES The lack of informed appropriate learning provision No coherent co-ordinated framework to inspire and inform curriculum innovation Dont know what works, where and when The cultural tensions & oppositions Lack of Incentives for curriculum innovation No focused policy framework to drive change Create a culture in HE that links creativity with commercial value SO.. What should be done????
Some Ideas .. Let us have your views TARGETED INVESTMENTS Strategic Curriculum Innovation Targeted Pilot Initiatives around the models of success - to work out what works for different sub-sectors and subject disciplines Entrepreneurship Leadership Programme National Creative Industries Enterprise Scheme coherent national development of what we have got and know Generate strategic focus -the framework- that helps prepare graduates for their portfolio careers . TARGETED INCENTIVES
Funding for entrepreneurship provision in HE Capital Investment in Facilities and Equipment Enable the graduates - Create the entrepreneurial support for their creativity INCORPORATE IN POLICY Create a national policy framework for graduate entrepreneurship in the creative industries Ensure the Creative industries are incorporated into existing policy frameworks OST, DfES, DTi,RDA Be both strategic and operational to support the growth of the sector
EMERGING ARGUMENTS The Creative Industries are the fastest growing sector of the economy in the UK It attracts an unusually high proportion of graduates, a significant proportion self-employed But the opportunities for entreprenuerial learning are limited by culture and operational factors in HE The potential is not realised- there is a gap in provision and policy to unlock the potential in HE. EMERGING SOLUTIONS But the DCMS Task Group has identified good practice It could be made more widespread. A policy framework is required that creates a vision for the development of the creative and commercial talent potential There is much to build on from the government policy
and investment in scientific entrepreneurship Invest in Curriculum Innovation and CI start-up support that is well informed by current success Enlightened focused national policy can unlock the potential An enterprising economy must be a skilled economy. So we must avoid the mistakes of the past when we failed to invest long term in education James Purnell CI Minister An enterprising economy must be a skilled economy. So we must avoid the mistakes of the past when we failed to invest long term in
education James Purnell CI Minister Given the characteristics of the creative industries, shouldnt we be investing in entrepreneurial learning to gain UK economic advantage from this fastest growing sector? Contact Gaynor Richards Higher and Further Education Development Manager Department for Culture, Media and Sport Based at: Manchester Metropolitan University Regional Office, Ormond Building All Saints, Oxford Road
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