Taxonomy The science of naming and grouping organisms Were going to talk about TAXONOMY (classifying names) not to be confused with TAXIDERMY (classifying skins)!! Not this! The first taxonomist was Aristotle,
a Greek philosopher (384-322 BC) He placed all organisms into two groups using simple names Pros and Cons of this? Plant shrub tree
Animal OR herb fly swim crawl
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist & physician Grouped organisms based on their physical and structural similarities Described organisms with two word names:
binomial nomenclature First word = genus Second word = species What do you think binomial nomenclature means? Why binomial nomenclature?
Scientific name - two word naming system Uses Latin, a dead, unchanging language. Why is this a good idea? (Organisms have the same name no matter where you go or what language you speak!) Genus is written first, then species
Genus is capitalized, species is not. Both are italicized if typed, underlined if written. Some scientific names Homo sapiens Canis lupus Felis domesticus Iguana iguana
Pan troglodytes Panthera tigris Pomacea bridgesii Quercus alba Taxonomic hierarchy Names organisms and their relationships from very broad to very specific Can
anyone name all 7 taxa???? Kingdom Organisms are classified in a hierarchy Kingdom (broadest) Phylum Class Order
Family Genus Species (most specific) Mnemonic Devices Kings Play Chess On Fat Guys Stomach
King Philip Came Over For Green Spaghetti Kangaroo Pouches Can Only Fit Green Skittles Katie Plays Clarinet On Fast Green Skis What can you come up with?
Human Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Giant Panda
Animalia Animalia Chordata Chordata Mammalia Mammalia Primate Carnivora Hominidae Ursidae Homo Ailuropoda sapiens melonoleuca But what are Domains??? Recently,
some major differences between cell types became known. This lead to the development of a new taxonomic category the domain. A domain is larger than a Kingdom. There are 3 domains: Domain Eukarya (animals, plants, protists, fungi) Domain Bacteria (Kingdom Eubacteria) Domain Archea (Kingdom Archaebacteria) So, what is a species
anyway? Biological species concept A group of actually or potentially breeding natural groups that are reproductively isolated from other groups. Ernst Mayr, 1924 Some problems: Asexual organisms Hybrids Sterile offspring of two different species
How many species are out there? There are probably around 10 million species worldwide, but estimates range from 5-30 million! Over 5 million live in the tropics Only 2 million species have been formally
described (and over half of these are insects!!) Each year, there are approximately three bird species discovered, many fish species, and countless insects and other small or microscopic organisms Why is taxonomy useful? Helps prevent confusion among scientists
Helps to show how organisms are related Can be used to reconstruct phylogenies evolutionary histories of an organism or group Phylogenetic Tree
Cladograms Graph showing when different groups diverged from a common ancestral line Points where they split are often noted with a feature that was different between ancestral group and a new feature in the group that split off.
Backbone The 6 kingdoms Prokaryotes (Used to be 1 kingdom, Monera) 1. Archaebacteria 2. Eubacteria Eukaryotes 3. Fungi 4. Protista 5. Animalia 6. Plantae
Overview of the 6 kingdoms Kingdom Archaebacteria Unicellular Live in extreme environments like volcanic hot springs, deoxygenated mud, extremely salty pools of water The Extremists Prokaryotic
Cell walls do not have the sugar peptidoglycan Kingdom Eubacteria Unicellular Prokaryotic Common, everyday bacteria Cell walls contain peptidoglycan (a molecule that adds strength and support to cell walls) Examples: E. coli, Streptococcus, & beneficial
bacteria found in yogurt! Kingdom Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular or colonial Autotrophic and heterotrophic Lots of different types and lifestyles examples. Amoeba, paramecium Kingdom
Fungi Cell walls made of chitin Eukaryotic & mostly multicellular External heterotrophs Examples: mushrooms, mold Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotic & Multicellular
Cell walls made of cellulose Autotrophic Examples: trees, flowers, broccoli Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotic & Multicellular No cell walls Internal heterotrophs Examples: sponges, worms, insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals (including
humans!) THE END (Nothing is cuter than a baby sloth with shampoo horns!) Features that could be used on a cladogram Backbone Tetrapod (4 limbs) Scales
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