Social Structure I - University of Minnesota Duluth
Emile Durkheim The Chicago School + Social Disorganization Anomie/Strain Theories SOCIAL STRUCTURAL THEORIES EMILE DURKHEIM (LATE 18581917) French Scientist Suicide Humans nature: selfish and insatiable Effective Societies able to cap desires
Socialization & Social Ties Special concern with Industrial Prosperity Coined the Term Anomie: Institutionalized norms lose ability to control human behavior and human needs DURKHIEMS LEGACY Rapidly Changing
Society Industrial Prosperity Anomie (Norms are Weakened) The Anomie/Strain Tradition Human Nature as Insatiable; must therefore cap or control Social Ties Important The Social Disorganization and Informal Control Tradition PARK & BURGESS (1925) How does a city growth and develop?
Concentric Zones in Chicago Industrial zone Zone in transition Residential zones SHAW AND MCKAY Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas 1942. Mapped addresses of delinquents (court
records) Zone in transition stable and high delinquency rates over many years Implications of these findings: 1. Stable, despite multiple waves of immigrants!! 2. Only certain areas of the city Something about SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION What were the characteristics of the zone in transition that may cause high delinquency rates?
Population Heterogeneity Population Turnover Physical Decay Poverty/Inequality Argue that these things impede informal social control One started, crime becomes stable because delinquent values are transmitted? SAMPSON AND GROVES (1989) Using British Crime Survey Data (BCS) ECOLOGICAL
CHARACTERISTICS Population turnover Poverty / inequality Divorce rates Single parents SOCIAL CONTROL Street supervision Friendship networks Participation in organizations CRIME (VICTIMIZATION) SAMPSON FRIENDS (1997-PRESENT) VERSION Data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods Concentrated
Disadvantage (Ecological) Population turnover Poverty / inequality Race composition Family disruption Physical decay Collective Efficacy Willingness to supervise/confront in neighborhood
Mutual trust and willingness to help neighbors CRIME Homicide Violence problem Victimiza RETURN OF THE CULTURAL TRANSMISSION William J. Wilson (Concentrated Poverty) The Underclass or Truly Disadvantaged
Cultural Isolation no contact with mainstream individuals/institutions Little respect for life Hyper materialism, violence as normative Some believe recent crime drop reflect move away from these values S.D. AS AN EXPLANATION FOR HIGH RATES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN OFFENDING William Julius Wilson and Robert Sampson
High proportion of the current members of the Zone in Transition. Public Policy made matters worse (high rise projects of the 1950s-60s) Why do African Americans not move out like prior ZIT residents (immigrants)? Housing Segregation Loss of Manufacturing Jobs The irony of Black Flight
POLICY IMPLICATIONS? Build neighborhood collective efficacy How do you do this? Address ecological characteristics that ruin collective efficacy Family disruption, concentrated poverty, residential mobility ROBERT K. MERTON
Social Structure and Anomie (1938) From Durkheim: Institutionalized norms are weakened in societies that place an intense value on economic success Applied this to the United States The American Dream STRAIN THEORY (MICRO LEVEL) MODES OF CULTURAL INSTITUTIONALIZED ADAPTATION GOALS MEANS
4. Retreatism 5. Rebellion +/- +/- CRITICISMS OF MERTONS STRAIN THEORY Is crime a lower class phenomena? Cannot explain expressive crimes Weak empirical support Why do people adapt differently? AGNEW: GENERAL STRAIN THEORY
Overhaul of Mertons Strain Theory Three sources of strain 1. 2. 3. Failure to achieve valued goals Removal of valued stimuli Cant escape noxious stimuli AGNEW (GST) StrainNegative Affective States
Anger, fear, frustration, depression In lieu of Coping Mechanisms, anger and frustration can produce delinquency StrainNeg EmotionalDelinquency CRIME AND THE AMERICAN DREAM Messner and Rosenfeld ELEMENTS OF THE AMERICAN DREAM
Achievement Individualism Universalism The fetishism of money These elements encourage Anomic conditions INSTITUTIONS IN SOCIETY Social institutions as the building blocks of society.
The Economy The Polity The Family Education CULTURE, SOCIAL STRUCTURE, AND CRIME RATES CULTURE SOCIAL STRUCTURE The American Dream Economic Dominance
ANOMIE Weak Institutional Controls HIGH CRIME RATES INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL THEORIES Hirschi (social bond) Gottfredson and Hirschi (low self-control) Sampson and Laub (age graded social control) ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT MOTIVATION TOWARDS
CRIME Strain theory: motivation from some sort of strain (e.g. blocked opportunity) Learning theory: motivation from delinquent peers Control theory: there is enough natural motivation towards crime No need to build in extra motivation Real question? Why arent we all
criminal? TYPES OF CONTROL Direct Control Indirect Control Direct punishments, rewards from parents, friends Refrain from deviance because you dont want to risk friends, job, etc.
Internal Control Good self-concept, self-control, conscience SOCIAL BOND THEORY Bond indicates Indirect Control
Direct controls (punishment, reinforcement) less important because delinquency occurs when out of parents reach (adolescence). Attachment Commitment bond Involvement other) Belief (Elements of the social are all related to each GOTTFREDSON AND HIRSCHI (1990) A General Theory of Crime
Same control theory assumptions If we are all inclined to be deviant, why conform? Because most of us develop selfcontrol Internal control Developed by age 8, as the result of direct control from parents NATURE OF CRIME, NATURE OF LOW SELF-CONTROL Criminal Acts
People with low self-control are therefore Provide immediate gratification of desires Impulsive Are risky/thrilling Are easy/simple Require little skill/planning Risk-taking Physical (as opposed to mental) Low verbal ability Provide few/meager long term benefits
Short-sighted Result in pain/discomfort to a victim Insensitive GOTTFREDSON AND HIRSCHI Family Contex t Low Direct Control Low SelfControl Large family size,
single parents, parental deviance Inadequate supervision, recognition, punishment Insensitive, impulsive, risk-taking AGE GRADED THEORY OF INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL Sampson and Laub We will cover this again in the lifecourse theory section
Takes Hirschis (1969) theory and made it age graded The specific elements of the social bond change over the life-course Also includes elements of direct control Also throws in some other stuff (integrated theory) SAMPSON AND LAUB Childhood
Context Individual Differences Adolescence Parenting Supervision Discipline Social Bonds Family School Delinquent Peers Adulthood Delinquency
Length of Incarceration Adult Crime Social Bonds Marriage Good Job POLICY IMPLICATIONS Hirschis Social Bond Theory Gottfredson and Hirschis General Theory
Target attachment, commitment, belief Must focus on early childhood prevention Train parents? Sampson and Laub SOCIAL PROCESS THEORY TRADITIONS Differential association/social learning Adequate socialization toward the
incorrect norms and values Informal social control Inadequate socialization Labeling theory Socialized to accept delinquent identity as result of criminal justice system DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION Criminal Behavior is learned Negatively, this means it is not invented
Communication within intimate groups Learning involves techniques and attitudes Attitudes expresses as definitions of the situation A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to law violation The process involves the same learning
TECHNIQUES OF NEUTRALIZATION Developed by Sykes and Matza First good attempt to measure Sutherlands definitions Documented common rationalizations (excuses) for delinquency among a sample of delinquents TECHNIQUES OF NEUTRALIZATION Denial of responsibility Denial of injury
Denial of victim Condemnation of the condemners Appeal to higher loyalties TECHNIQUES OF NEUTRALIZATION Definitions or Something Else?? Sociology criticism Such attitudes do not actually cause criminal behavior. Rationalization is utilized only after the offense is committed when behavior is called into question. Psychologist (Behaviorism): To the extent that these rationalizations neutralize guilt, they reinforce behavior (Negative Reinforcement)
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Developed by Ronald Akers Early version: differential reinforcement Revision of differential association theory Added concepts of operant conditioning and imitation (observational learning) to explain how behavior was learne SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Key concepts Differential associations Definitions Differential reinforcement Imitation SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (AKERS) Exposure to
definitions or different role models DA Balance of definitions or role models produces initial behaviors Definitions Role models Behaviors Positive or negative reinforcement
R(+/-) SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Empirical research measures Attitudes that support crime (definitions) Exposure to delinquent peers/family members (differential associations) Rewards or punishment for delinquency (differential reinforcement) POLICY IMPLICATIONS: SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Use the principles of learning to Reduce access to delinquent peers Confront and change antisocial attitudes
Change the balance of reinforcement so that it supports prosocial behavior Behavioral/cognitive restructuring programs LABELING THEORY Developed by Frank Tannenbaum, Edwin Lemert, and Howard Becker Key concepts Emphasis is on interactions between individuals and institutions of formal control (e.g., police, courts, prisons). Contact with police and the courts may create negative self-image. Formal interventions may increase criminal behavior. ROOTS OF THE LABELING
PERSPECTIVE (1 OF 3) View of crime and deviance as relative Deviant categorization depends on many factors Focus on how power and conflict shape society (social context) Moral entrepreneurs Importance of self-concept Symbolic interactionism and Looking-glass self A CRITIQUE OF LABELING THEORY Little empirical support
Inaccurate assumptions Primary deviance as relative, sporadic, and unimportant Nature of the person predicts official reaction more than the nature of the act Effect of official sanctions on future behavior Racial bias does existbut not sole (or most important) cause of CJ response to crime Arrest sometimes decreases future crime POLICY IMPLICATIONS: LABELING THEORY Policy implications Schur: Radical nonintervention Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (1974)
Diversion programs Divert offenders away from the formal juvenile justice processing to programs run by other entities (i.e., social service programs) Deinstitutionalization (esp. status offenders) Due Process revolution in Juvenile Court LABELING THEORY IN CONTEXT Labeling theory most popular in 1960s1970s
The central ideas had been around as early as the 1930s Good fit for the social context of 1960s Ironic Twist Government, trying to do good, actually makes people worse Good fit with the cant trust the government social movement era LABELING EXTENSIONS II
Reintegrative Shaming Developed by John Braithewaite Effect of formal punishment depends upon how a person is punished. Shaming and reintegrative punishment will decrease future crime. Stigmatizing punishment will increase future crime. LEADS TO RESTORATIVE JUSTICE CRITICAL THEORY Central Themes
Emphasis on inequality and power Crime as political concept CJS serves interests of powerful Solution to crime is more equitable society EXPLANATION OF LAW and CJ SYSTEM rather than crime VARIATIONS OF CRITICAL THEORY
Conflict Theory Marxist/Radical Theory Feminist Criminology/Gender and Crime PLURALISTIC CONFLICTEXPLANATION OF THE LAW AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE George Vold Group Conflict Multiple groups in society with varying levels of power Political interest groups Social movements Broad segments of society Political parties
Those who win conflict get control over the law and coercive power of the state EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE The formulation of law Interest groups influence on law-making Research on consensus over laws The operation of the CJS Research on extra-legal variables
Legal = prior record, offense seriousness extra = RACE, CLASS, GENDER Demeanor? WHERE THE EVIDENCE IS CLEAR Race and Capital Punishment Victim x Race interactions
Race and Drug Prosecutions Long history of connecting drugs to dangerous populations Chinese Opium Mexicans Marijuana African Americans Crack Cocaine e Crack Multiplier Enforcement patterns for drug offenses
MARXIST/RADICAL CRIMINOLOGY Instrumental Marxist Position Hard line position Crime and the creation and enforcement of law the direct result of capitalism Structural Marxist Position
Softer Position Governments are somewhat autonomous Over time, the direction of the law (creation and enforcement) will lean towards the capitalists IMPLICATIONS FOR LAW Capitalists control the definition of crime Laws protect the capitalists (property, $) Laws ignore crimes of the capitalists
(profiteering) IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM CJS is the tool of the capitalists; used to oppress (not protect) the working population Crimes of the rich treated with kid gloves Property crimes strictly enforced
Street crimes are enforced only in poor neighborhoods Incarceration to control surplus labor CRITICISMS RADICAL/MARXIST CRIMINOLOGY An underdog theory with little basis in fact Are socialist societies any different? Other capitalist countries have low crime rates Most crime is poor against poorMarxists ignore the plight of the poor.
JEFFREY REIMAN The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison Key point = harmful acts of the rich are often ignored (unneccesary surgery, environmental harm, etc.) White collar crime less serious and less likely to be enforced Pollution, Hazardous work conditions, Unsafe products, Insider trading, Embezzlement, Fraud
Even wealthy people who engage in street crime are less likely to be formally charged and better able to avoid sanctioning GENDER AND CRIME Feminist Criminology Gender Ratio and Generalizability Relationships between gender, crime, and the criminal justice system GENDER-CRIME
Gender ratio (Gender Gap) Males account for the vast majority of delinquent and criminal offending UCR, NCVS, self-report Gender gap shrinking? Liberation hypothesis (Not supported by research) WHY is gender ratio so large?
Can traditional theories explain? (Social bond, delinquent peers, etc.) Masculinity & sex roles GENDER AND CRIME II Generaliziblity issue Can Male theories explain female offending?
Many theories blatantly sexist (See, Cohen) Many theories simply ignore females Mainstream theories do explain male and female offending similarly Could we do better explaining female criminality? Salience of sexual/physical abuse among DALYS TYPOLOGY OF FEMALE OFFENDING
Street women Harmed-and-harming women Battered women Drug-connected women Other women GENDER AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM Research findings When gender effects are found, females are treated more leniently
Chivalry Hypothesis Paternalism Hypothesis Seriousness of offense differs in ways that most research doesnt count Sort-of-legal-factors (familied)
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