Social Relations Prejudice unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group of people Made up of beliefs (stereotypes), emotions, & actions (discrimination) Modern prejudice is often both subtle & automatic/unconscious Overt prejudice still exists (i.e. gays, immigrants, and minorities) Social roots: Prejudice
Social inequalities Allport (1954) haves justify have-nots as deserving of their situation In-group vs. out-group Turner (1987) & Hogg (1996) social identity In-group bias strong affection for group (often accompanied by discrimination of out-groups) Prejudice Emotional roots
Death, fear, anger effect prejudice attitudes Scapegoat theory someone to blame Cognitive roots Categorizing over generalize (stereotype) Vivid cases over estimate number Just-World Phenomenon get what you deserve Blame the victim ex. Provocative dressers deserve to get harassed Hind-sight bias Aggression
Biology of Aggression Genetic influence Animals bred for aggressiveness Men are more aggressive (potential y chromosome link) Neural influence Neural networks for aggression, not one part of brain Frontal lobe inhibits aggression Biochemical influence
Hormones (testosterone) effect aggression levels Alcohol raises aggression Aggression Psychology of aggression Aversive events Frustration-aggression principle frustration leads to anger which leads aggression Aggression is rewarding
Getting want you want reinforces aggressive behavior Aggression replacement reward non-aggressive behaviors instead of punishing undesirable behaviors Observing models Ex. Sexually explicit material with violence increases acceptance of violent sexual behavior Social script media influence Description of how to act in certain situations ( i.e. playbook for dating, partying, drug use, etc.) Aggression
Video games Dont cause aggressive behavior but may prime aggressive behavior Research doesnt prove catharsis effect role playing violent games doesnt release aggression but increases violent tendency A Conflict A +5 +5 +5
-5 -5 B B +5 0 0 Social Traps pursuing what is best for you in a conflict and getting caught in destructive behavior Social matrix trap game Promoting cooperation with self-interest seems best Role of regulations, communication and awareness of responsibility
Conflict Enemy perceptions Mirror-image perception as we see them they see us Believe that the other person in a conflict is shady, untrustworthy, conniving, etc. Perceptions can and do change as conflicts change What strategies would you suggest for conflict resolution? How do different situations effect how you might feel?
Attraction Psychology of attraction Proximity you like things that you have been around the longest Mere exposure effect the more you are exposed to something new the more LIKELY you are to enjoy it Ex. children with new foods, TV shows, etc. How does this relate to racism in dominantly white areas? Difficulties of long distance relationships How can you like something youve never been exposed to
Attraction Physical Attractiveness Appearance is critical to attraction First impressions before you ever hear them speak you make judgments Advertisers often pair their products with attractive people (higher order conditioning). Why? Beauty is a cultural standard not a universal social norm Youth seems to be attractive for women in most cultures What are differences in cultural attractiveness?
Effects of attractiveness on liking and vice versa Attraction Similarity We seem to prefer people/things that are similar to ourselves Opposites attract doesnt hold true in research! Reward attraction theory like relationships that the rewards outweigh the costs Romantic love
Passionate love physical arousal Butterflies when you meet the one Companionate love more than just passionate love Long-term affection Role of equity & self-disclosure Altruism Doing good for good sake Bystander intervention Social exchange Will it help me? Reciprocity Help those who help us
Hurt? Social-responsibility Parents & kids, teachers & students, etc. Peacemaking Superordinate goals Common goals overcome differences Communication Conciliation Small gestures Review for Social Psychology Attribution Theory & error Attitudes & Actions Cognitive dissonance Conformity & Obedience Asch & Zimbardo
Milgram Group Influence Social Relations Prejudice Aggression Conflict Attraction Altruism Peacemaking
11.4 The Ray Model of Light. Light Ray. A line and arrow representing the direction and straight-line path of light . Incident Light. Light emitted from a source that strikes an object. Incident Light Ray. Properties of Light .
Bilinear form. arethe attacker's and defender's payoff matrices. GeneralSecurityGameModel. Attacker choose atmost. c. targets to attack. Pure strategies . Attacker's pure strategy is , the attacker's pure strategy space is auniformmatroid.
Well the point is.. And what the NZ and other similar risk calculators don't do is distinguish short term from long term (or lifetime risk). And of course, long term risk is more important to 35 year olds than 75...