Layers of the Earth 13.1 The Geologic Time Scale The Geologic column represents a timeline of Earths history, with the oldest fossils at the bottom. Geologists use: The Law of Superposition
Index fossils Geologic Column See Text p. 375 (Great uncomformity) The Construction of the Geologic Column No single area on earth contains a record of all geologic time, so scientists combine their observations from around the world to create a standard
arrangement of rock layers. What do we call the line between layers B and C? The Geologic Column is based on hundreds of years of scientific research from all over the world. Divisions of Geologic Time Divided by major changes in climate, or the extinction of a large group of organisms.
Eras are divided into Periods Period characterized by specific fossils Named for the location in which the rocks containing the identifying fossils were first found. Periods may be divided into Epochs Epoch subdivision of Cenozoic ONLY! Cenozoic has an abundance of extremely detailed fossil record. Only in the Cenozoic are Periods divided into Epochs. We live in the Cenozoic Era,
the Quaternary Period, and Holocene Epoch ! Divisions of Geologic Time Extinction of species is predicted by evolution. Geologic History of organisms Theory of Evolution Organisms change over time, and
new kinds of organisms are derived from ancestral types. 1. 2. 3. 4. Proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859 Individual in a population vary in each generation Some of these variations are genetic, or inherited More individuals are produced than live to grow up and reproduce
Individuals with some genes are more likely to survive and reproduce than others. The fossil record is more evidence for evolution. Many organisms do not survive. If fact, 99% of all organisms that have ever lived are now extinct. How species evolve Geologic History Era largest unit of geologic time 1. Precambrian time oldest layers of the geologic column
lasted much longer than other eras very few fossils have been found o early Precambrian, bacteria & algae o late Precambrian, primitive worms, sponges, and coral Evidence that life began in the ocean 2. Paleozoic Era Meaning ancient life From 325 180 million years ago Wide variety of fossils, both marine and land plants and animals
Periods: Permian Pangaea comes together; 95% mass extinctions Carboniferous Amphibians flourish, sea stars common; forests & swamps; giant insects Devonian Age of fishes; 1st amphibians; ferns & cone-bearing plants develop Silurian 1st Echinoderms; eurypterids (sea scorpions); 1st land plants and animals appear Ordovician Trilobites decline; 1st vertebrates appear (fishes) Cambrian Trilobites & brachiopods common Brachiopods Trilobite
Earliest fish: ostracoderms Eurypterids Horsetails 3. Mesozoic era Meaning middle life From 180 65 million years ago More-complex fossils like reptiles and birds Periods:
Cretaceous 1st flowering plants; mass extinction of all non-avian dinosaurs (~ 75% of species mass extinction) Jurassic Dinosaurs dominant; flying reptiles & first birds Triassic Ammonites common; cycads & conifers; first mammals appear 4. Cenozoic Meaning recent life From 65 million ago Fossils of mammals common Periods: Quaternary
Holocene: End of last ice age; complex human societies Pleistocene: Woolly mammoths, rhinos, and early humans Tertiary Pliocene: large carnivores (bears, dogs, cats) Miocene: Grazing herds abundant; raccoons, wolves Oligocene: deer, pigs, horses, a, cats, and dogs Eocene: horses, flying squirrels, bats, whales Paleocene: Age of mammals begins; lemuroids Timeline compressed to 1 Year Jan 1 Earth is formed Feb 25 First cells
July 17 First cells with nuclei Nov 18 First animals evolve Dec 1 First tetrapods (4 legs) Dec 14 First mammals Dec 26 Mass extinction of the dinosaurs Dec 31 Humans first appear at 11:35 pm Dec 31 Humans build Stonehenge about 11:59:30 http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2012/12/31/history_of_earth_video_of_earth_s_timeline_compressed_into_one_minute.html Earth time Music video Geologic Time Music Video- BlethwynFilms (by The Script)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PQURsc2SYs Words to song above http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXpeovWDi9k National Geographic: The Story of Earth HD (1:30:01) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xsn3wpVAcjk Timeline Pictures Early fishes bacteria crinoids
brachiopods cyanobacteria early life Early echinoderms eurypterids trilobites
The North Texas Regional P-16 Council, along with families, business, faith-based groups, local, state, and federal agencies, and community organizations, works across the levels of education to advance all students and to close the gaps in students' academic achievement from...
Assurance, Classical Calvinism. Calvin taught we can know in this life if we are one of the elect - and hence know if we have "Eternal Security" or "Blessed Assurance." How? Two ways: 1. The " internal testimony" of the...
Transplante de microbiota intestinal Estratégia para curar pacientes com diarréia crônica devido à infecção por Clostridium difficile após uso de terapia antimicrobiana. Microbiota intestinal e diabetes A presença de grande quantidade de bactérias Firmicutes aumenta a absorção de nutrientes e...
Travis Black. Office of Intermodal System Development. Maritime Administration. Oklahoma - Arkansas Port Talk. July 28, 2016. StrongPorts is a collection of the Maritime Administration's programs designed to deliver development and modernization assistance to US ports and their communities and...
Include elements of fantasy and magic. Main actors are ordinary people or animals. (Fairytale would go under folktale. Divine Myth. Gods are beings that are vastly superior, more powerful, and more splendid than human beings.
Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) Sets up virtual circuits for audio-video . applications. Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) Used after a virtual connection setup by RSVP or RTSP. Adds a sequence number and a timestamp for helping applications to synchronize delivery.
Consider value vs. loss of space. Ensure you can monitor students easily. 6. Locate Storage and Supplies ... Decorate one bulletin board to gain student interest and set a welcoming tone to start. ... Advanced Preparation for the School Year....
Calibri Arial Symbol Office Theme MathType 6.0 Equation Autocorrelation in Time Series Issues in Autocorrelated Data First-Order Model - I First-Order Model - II Test For Independence - Durbin-Watson Test Autocorrelation - Remedial Measures Transformed Variables Cochrane-Orcutt Method Hildreth-Lu and...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!