Author: A. Kent Christensen, Ph.D., 2009 License: Unless

Author: A. Kent Christensen, Ph.D., 2009 License: Unless

Author: A. Kent Christensen, Ph.D., 2009 License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use, share, and adapt it. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt this material. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact [email protected] with any questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content. For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/education/about/terms-of-use. Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for

medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition. Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers. Citation Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicy Use + Share + Adapt { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } Public Domain Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (17 USC 105) Public Domain Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term.

Public Domain Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Creative Commons Zero Waiver Creative Commons Attribution License Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU Free Documentation License Make Your Own Assessment { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } Public Domain Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (17 USC 102(b)) *laws in

your jurisdiction may differ { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (17 USC 107 ) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair. Histology of the Cardiovascular System

M1 Cardiovascular/Respiratory Sequence A. Kent Christensen, Ph.D. Fall 2008 A.K. Christensen Comparing biophysical and structural characterists of vessels Graph physiology

Junqueira and Carneiro, 10th ed., 2003. page 225 Wall coats A.K. Christensen Middle-sized artery, LM Lumen Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 255

Artery wall, LM tunica intima internal elastic membrane tunica media (smooth muscle) tunica adventitia Erlandsen slide set, slide MH-6/C/8

Intima and media, LM Lumen Erlandsen slide set, slide MH-6/C/9 Wall of middle-sized artery, elastin stain, LM Erlandsen slide set, slide MH-6/D/1 Femoral artery wall, stained for elastin, LM

Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 245 Thickening of the tunica intima Arteriosclerosis (normal aging changes) Fibrosis, elastic fragmentation Atherosclerosis (pathological) Eccentric fibrous thickening, foam cells, lipid deposition, calcification. Theca intima

Arteriosclerosis. Aortic wall of 62-year-old man. Fibrous intimal thickening, within normal range. Van Giesons elastic stain. Sternberg 1992, Histology for Pathologists, p. 196. Fragmentation of internal elastic membrane, LM Sternberg 1992, Histology for Pathologists, p. 198. Comparison of companion artery and vein Artery: smaller, round, thick wall

Vein: Larger, irregular shape, thin wall Femoral artery and vein Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 235 Compare histology of artery and vein Junqueira and Carneiro, Basic Histology 10th ed., 2003, page 227, fig. 11-18 Valve in a vein, longitudinal section, LM

Blood flow Cusp Hadley Kirkman, Stanford (originally from Columbia P&S) Small artery 3and vein, LM Fat Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/G/5

Lymphatic Arteriole and venule, LM Nerve Capillary Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 260

SEM of smooth muscle sheath around an arteriole Fawcett Histology, 11th ed., 1986, page 375, fig 12-10 Arteriole wall, EM Lumen Junction Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/D/5

Occluding (tight) junction, endothelium of capillary, EM Fawcett, A Textbook of Histology, 11th edition, 1986, page 387, fig 12-22 Occluding (tight) junction, endothelium, freeze fracture EM Nicolae and Maya Simionescu in Cell and Tissue Biology: a Textbook of Histology, ed. Leon Weiss, 6th edition Capillary bed between arteriole and venule Arteriole

Capillaries Fawcett's Histology, 11th ed., page 382 Venule Capillary, longitudinal section, LM Capillary

Fat cell Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 261 Capillary, longitudinal section, LM Skeletal muscle fiber Endothelial nucleus

RBC Erlandsen medical histology slide set (MH). MH-6E4 Capillaries seen in cross section, cardiac muscle, heart, LM Cardiac muscle Erlandsen slide set, slide MH-6/E/3

Capillary types, continuous and fenestrated, EM diagram Continuous (muscular) Fenestrated (visceral) Fenestra= window in Latin. (80-100 nm) Capillary diameter 6-10 m

Bloom and Fawcett Histology, 11th ed, fig 12-23, p 387 Continuous: skeletal muscle, lung, CNS, connective tissue, etc. Fenestrated: Intestinal tract, endocrine glands, kidney, pancreas, etc. Continuous capillary, EM Don W. Fawcett.

Fenestrated capillary, EM RBC Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/E/6 EM of continuous and fenestrated capillary walls Pinocytotic vesicle (~70 nm) Fenestrations (~80-100 nm) diaphragm

Fawcett Histology, 11th ed, fig 12-24, p 388) SEM of fenestrated endothelium and liver sinusoid (discontinuous) Fenestrated endothelium Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/E/8 Sinusoids are large

capillaries (30-40 m), usually fenestrated. Liver sinusoids have discontinuities (holes). Liver sinusoid endothelium discontinuity Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/E/8 Passage of proteins across capillary wall

Basal lamina of endothelium is not a significant barrier. Intercellular tight junctions are usually rather impermeable to water. Fenestrations pass mostly water and small proteins (<20K MW). Mechanism (bidirectional):

A.K. Christensen Discrete shuttling of vesicles Non-specific fluid phase uptake (pinocytotic vesicles). Specific receptor-mediated transport (coated vesicles with clathrin). For example: albumin, insulin, transferrin, LDL. Correlation with physiology

Physiologists large pore transport is probably this vesicular transport. Physiologists small pore transport is probably between endothelial cells and through fenestrations. EM tracer protein experiment to test for vesicle transport

At 35 seconds, tracer protein is in the lumen and in pinocytotic vesicles, but not in pericapillary space. At 60 seconds, tracer protein is in the lumen, pinocytotic vesicles, and in the pericapillary space,

showing that the protein has been transported across the endothelial wall. Tight junctions between endothelial cells prevent passage between the cells. Weiss Histology, 6th ed, fig 10-31, p 388

Pericytes (Rouget cells) are common on capillaries and on postcapillary venules , EM Don W. Fawcett SEM of a pericyte (P) on a capillary (C) Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/F/4 Possible pericyte functions: (1) Stem cell to repair capillary damage or for new growth, (2) contractility (has smooth muscle type myosin, actin, tropomyosin).

Arteriovenous anastomosis (shunt), a short circuit Capillaries Arteriole Image of arteriovenous anastomosis removed

Original Source: Wheaters, Figure 9.18 In cold weather you don't want to lose In cold weather you don't want to lose heat at the skin surface, so the shunts are open, and not much blood goes to the skin papillary loops (capillaries). In hot weather the shunts are closed, so blood goes to the skin papillary loops, and the blood can thus be cooled by evaporation of sweat at the skin surface. Heart, Diagram

HEART WALL Endocardium = endothelium + connective tissue (like intima) Myocardium = thick cardiac muscle (like media) Epicardium = visceral pericardium = simple squamous epith + fatty connective tissue

The AV valve margins are supported by chorda tendinae and papillary muscles. Osnimf, wikimedia commons Wall of atrium and ventricle, heart, LM Pericardial cavity Fat

Lumen (fibrous) Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/B/8 Pericardium Cardiac fibrous skeleton (in blue)

Ross. Histology: A Text and Atlas, 4th ed., page 343 Atrio-ventricular valve, LM Ventricle Atrium Valves arise from the fibrous skeleton. The valve leaflet is dense irregular connective tissue (collagen, elastin). The valve is covered with endothelium.

Fibrous skeleton Valve In the heart there are atrioventricular valves (tricuspid, mitral bicuspid), and semilunar valves (aorta, pulmonary). Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 212 Diagram of heart, showing cardiac conduction system

Sinoatrial (SA) node: Pacemaker. Atrioventricular (AV) node. Atrioventricular bundle (of His): conducts across the AV septum (fibrous skeleton). Purkinje fibers (composed of Purkinje cells). Branches to supply both ventricles (apex

first). In ventricle subendocardial layer. Grays Anatomy, wikimedia commons Purkinje cells, human heart Usual cardiac muscle Purkinje cells Ventricular lumen

Source Undetermined Endocardium Purkinje cells, human heart (detail) Purkinje cells Source Undetermined EM of Purkinje cell, showing sparse

and disorganized myofibrils Griepp, in Weiss Histology, 6th ed, p 414 Large (elastic) arteries: wall of aorta Large arteries: aorta, pulmonary, brachiocephalic, common carotid. Intima has abundant elastic fibers, oriented longitudinally.

Boundary between the intima and media often unclear by LM. Media has abundant concentric elastic sheets (fenestrated) and smooth muscle cells (that make the extracellular matrix and elastic sheets). Adventitia rather thin.

Elastic sheet (seen edge on) Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 228 Wall of aorta, stained for elastin, LM Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/C/2 EM of aortic wall, media & adventitia

Simionescu and Simionescu, in Weiss Histology, 6th ed, fig 10-10, p 369 Large veins: inferior vena cava, very low power Large veins: vena cava, external jugular, pulmonary, external iliac. Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 234 Wall quite thin. Intima usual.

Media thin or absent. Adventitia prominent, usually containing longitudinally-oriented smooth muscle bundles. Valves present Wall of the vena cava, showing longitudinal smooth muscle in adventitia, LM Lumen

Intima Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med), slide 229 LYMPHATIC VESSELS Lymphatic vessels drain excess fluid from the tissues. They begin as blind lymphatic capillaries which take up excess tissue fluid. Lymph vessels contain no RBCs, but have some lymphocytes. Lymph flows through larger and larger collecting vessels, with histology resembling that of venules

and veins (with valves). Occasional lymph nodes are interposed in the lymphatic vessel pathway, so the lymph flows through them (macrophages monitor the lymph, lymphocytes may engage in immune activities). Lymph reaches the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct, both of which empty lymph into veins at the base of the neck, thus restoring the fluid and any content (proteins, etc.) to the blood. Basal lamina

Lymphatic capillary Junqueira and Carneiro, Basic Histology 10th ed., 2003, page 230, fig. 11-22 Comparison of a small vein and a lymphatic vessel Lymphatic Valve

Vein A.K. Christensen Additional Source Information for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicy Slide 4: A. Kent Christensen Slide 5: Junqueira and Carneiro, 10th ed., 2003. page 225 Slide 6: A. Kent Christensen Slide 7: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 255 Slide 8: Erlandsen slide set, slide MH-6/C/8

Slide 9: Erlandsen slide set, slide MH-6/C/9 Slide 10: Erlandsen slide set, slide MH-6/D/1 Slide 11: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 245 Slide 12: Sternberg 1992, Histology for Pathologists, p. 196. Slide 13: Sternberg 1992, Histology for Pathologists, p. 198. Slide 14: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 235 Slide 15: Junqueira and Carneiro, Basic Histology 10th ed., 2003, page 227, fig. 11-18 Slide 16: Hadley Kirkman, Stanford (originally from Columbia P&S) Slide 17: Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/G/5 Slide 18: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 260 Slide 19: Fawcett Histology, 11th ed., 1986, page 375, fig 12-10

Slide 20: Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/D/5 Slide 21: Fawcett, A Textbook of Histology, 11th edition, 1986, page 387, fig 12-22 Slide 22: Nicolae and Maya Simionescu in Cell and Tissue Biology: a Textbook of Histology, ed. Leon Weiss, 6th edition, 1988, page 395, figure 10-38. Slide 23: Fawcett's Histology, 11th ed., page 382 Slide 24: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 261 Slide 25: Erlandsen medical histology slide set (MH). MH-6E4 Slide 26: Erlandsen slide set, slide MH-6/E/3 Slide 27: Bloom and Fawcett Histology, 11th ed, fig 12-23, p 387 Slide 28: Don W. Fawcett. Slide 29: Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/E/6 Slide 30: Fawcett Histology, 11th ed, fig 12-24, p 388)

Slide 31: Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/E/8 Slide 32: A. Kent Christensen Slide 33: Weiss Histology, 6th ed, fig 10-31, p 388 Slide 34: Don W. Fawcett Slide 35: Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/F/4 Slide 36: Original Source, Wheaters, Figure 9.18 Slide 37: Osnimf, Wkimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aorta.jpg Slide 38: Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/B/8 Slide 39: Ross. Histology: A Text and Atlas, 4th ed., page 343 Slide 40: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 212

Slide 41: Grays Anatomy, Wikimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray501.png Slide 42: Source Undetermined Slide 43: Source Undetermined Slide 44: Griepp, in Weiss Histology, 6th ed, p 414 Slide 45: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 228 Slide 46: Erlandsen slide set, slide 6/C/2 Slide 47: Simionescu and Simionescu, in Weiss Histology, 6th ed, fig 10-10, p 369 Slide 48: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 234 Slide 49: Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med), slide 229 Slide 51: Junqueira and Carneiro, Basic Histology 10th ed., 2003, page 230, fig. 11-22 Slide 52: A. Kent Christensen

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