Particle Size Distribution (PSD) FARAZ HUSSAIN 2009-MS-MME-02 Particle Size Distribution Objective Understanding of Particle Size and Particle Shape Particle Size Distribution (PSD) Significance of Particle Size Distribution (PSD)

Particle Size Distribution: Sampling Particle Size Distribution: Measurement Techniques Particle Size Distribution: Graphical Representation Particle Size Distribution Understanding of Particle Size and Particle Shape Particle Size Particle size or grain size refers to the diameter of a grain of granular material

Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution The size of a spherical homogeneous particle is uniquely defined by its diameter. For regular, compact particles such as cubes or regular tetrahedra, a single dimension can be used to define size. With some regular particles it may be necessary to specify more than one dimension: For a cone the base

diameter and height are required whilst for a cuboid three dimensions are needed. Particle Size Distribution For irregular particles, it is desirable to quote the size of a particle in terms of a single quantity, and the expression most often used is the "equivalent diameter". This refers to the diameter of a sphere that would behave in the same manner as the particle when submitted to some specified operation. The assigned equivalent diameter usually depends on the

method of measurement, hence the particle-sizing technique should, wherever possible, duplicate the process one wishes to control. Several equivalent diameters are commonly encountered. For example, the Stokes' diameter is measured by sedimentation and elutriation techniques; the projected area diameter is measured microscopically and the sieveaperture diameter is measured by means of sieving.

Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution Influences of Particle Size Particle size influences dissolution Small particles dissolve more rapidly than large ones, which is important not only in determining the behavior of the drug in vivo but also in various manufacturing processes. Particle size influences flow properties of powders The flow properties of powders are strongly dependent on particle

size and, in particular, particle shape. Since most powders are moved from one place to another by flowing, control of flow behavior is highly important. Generally, coarse, roughly spherical particles flow much more easily than small or elongated particles. Particle size influences stability of dispersions The stability of dispersions, such as suspensions and emulsions, depends on the size of the dispersed material. The forces between

colloidal particles depend on their dimensions, and the settling. Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution The length is the distance between two tangential planes which are perpendicular to those defining the thickness and breadth. In practice it may be difficult to measure the particle thickness,

particularly from microscopy, and so often we are limited to using simply the elongation ratio, as shown in Figure. Particle Size Distribution Shape Factor The ratio of two equivalent diameters obtained by different methods is termed a shape factor. Shape factors describe the departure of the particle from a spherical form. One of the simplest is the sphericity, , defined by Wadell (1934) as:

Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution Effect of Particle Shape Particle shape influences such properties as: Flowability of powders Packing Interaction with fluids and the covering power of pigments The variation between the diameters increases as the particles diverge more from the spherical shape.

Different results from different techniques can be compared by applying shape factors and shape coefficients. Particle Size Distribution SEM picture of Polystyrene Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution The particle size distribution (PSD) may be defined as

Particle size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amounts of particles present, sorted according to size. Particle size distribution is also known as grain size distribution. Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution Significance of Particle Size Distribution (PSD) The PSD of a material can be important in understanding its physical and chemical properties.

It affects the strength and load-bearing properties of rocks and soils. It affects the reactivity of solids participating in chemical reactions, and needs to be tightly controlled in many industrial products such as the manufacture of printer toner and cosmetics. Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution: Measurement Techniques There is a wide range of instrumental and other methods of particle size analysis available. Some of the more common

methods are: 1. Sieve Analysis 2. Sedimentation Methods 3. Elutriation Techniques

4. Microscopic Sizing and Image Analysis 5. Electrical Impedance Method 6. Laser Diffraction Methods

Particle Size Distribution 1. Sieve Analysis Sieve analysis is one of the oldest methods of size analysis. Sieve analysis is accomplished by passing a known weight of sample material successively through finer sieves and weighing the amount collected on each sieve to determine the percentage weight in each size fraction. Sieving is carried out with wet or dry materials and the sieves are usually agitated to expose all the particles to the openings.

Particle Size Distribution Process of Sieving The process of sieving may be divided into two stages. First, the elimination of particles considerably smaller than the screen apertures, which should occur fairly rapidly and, second, the separation of the so-called "near-size" particles, which is a gradual process rarely reaching final completion. The effectiveness of a sieving test depends on the amount of material put on the sieve (the "charge") and the type of movement imparted to the sieve.

Particle Size Distribution Test Sieves Test sieves are designated by the nominal aperture size, which is the nominal central separation of opposite sides of a square aperture or the nominal diameter of a round aperture. Particle Size Distribution The woven sieve is the oldest design, and it is normally made by weaving fine metal wire into a square pattern, then soldering the edges securely into a flattish cylindrical Container. Woven-wire sieves were originally designated by a mesh number, which referred to the number of wires per inch, which is

the same as the number of square apertures per square inch. Particle Size Distribution Presentation of Results There are several ways in which the results of a sieve test can be tabulated. The three most convenient methods are shown in table. Particle Size Distribution Table shows: (1)

The sieve size ranges used in the test. (2) The weight of material in each size range, e.g. 1.32 g of material passed through the 250 m sieve, but was retained on the 180 m sieve: the material therefore is in

the size range -250 to +180 m. (3) The weight of material in each size range expressed as a percentage of the total weight. (4) The nominal aperture sizes of the sieves used in the test.

(5) The cumulative percentage of material passing through the sieves, e.g. 87.5% of the material is less than 125 m in size. (6) sieves. The cumulative percentage of material retained on the Particle Size Distribution

Technique Advantages 1) This technique is well-adapted for bulk materials. 2) It is required to produce a separated size fraction for further study. 3)

The material flows easily as discrete particles. 4) The material is fairly coarse, e.g. above 100 m, and contains few fines. 5) The powder is composed of materials with a range of different densities, different refractive indices or is water- soluble.

Particle Size Distribution Technique Disadvantages 1) Much fine material below 100 m is present, unless specialized microsieving equipment is available. 2) The particles are fragile.

3) The particles are in the form of elongated needles. 4) The material adheres to the sieve or forms clumps. 5) The powder easily acquires an electrostatic charge.

Particle Size Distribution 2. Sedimentation Methods Sedimentation methods are based on the measurement of the rate of settling of the powder particles uniformly dispersed in a fluid and the principle is well illustrated by the common laboratory method of "beaker decantation". Particle Size Distribution The material under test is uniformly dispersed in low concentration in water contained in a beaker. A wetting agent may need to be added to ensure complete dispersion of the particles.

A syphon tube is immersed into the water to a depth of h below the water level, corresponding to about 90% of the liquid depth L. The terminal velocity v is calculated from Stokes' law for the various sizes of particle in the material, say 35, 25, 15, and 10 m. Particle Size Distribution The time required for a 10 m particle to settle from the water level to the bottom of the syphon tube, distance h, is calculated (t = h/v).

The pulp is gently stirred to disperse the particles through the whole volume of water and then it is allowed to stand for the calculated time. The water above the end of the tube is syphoned off and all particles in this water are assumed to be smaller than 10 m diameter. Particle Size Distribution Technique Advantages The method is simple and cheap. This methods has the advantage over many other sub-sieve

techniques in that it produces a true fractional size analysis. Technique Disadvantages This method is, however, extremely tedious, as long settling times are required for very fine particles, and separate tests must be performed for each particle size. Particle Size Distribution Andreasen Pipette Technique A much quicker and less-tedious method of sedimentation analysis is the Andreasen Pipette Technique.

The method is much quicker than beaker decantation, as samples are taken off successively throughout the test for increasingly finer particle sizes. Particle Size Distribution 3. Elutriation Techniques Elutriation is a process of sizing particles by means of an upward current of fluid, usually water or air.

The process is the reverse of gravity sedimentation, and Stokes' law applies. All elutriators consist of one or more "sorting columns in which the fluid is rising at a constant velocity. Particle Size Distribution Feed particles introduced into the sorting column will be separated into two fractions, according to their terminal velocities, calculated from Stokes' law. Those particles having a terminal velocity less than that of the

velocity of the fluid will report to the overflow, while those particles having a greater terminal velocity than the fluid velocity will sink to the underflow. Elutriation is carried out until there are no visible signs of further classification taking place or the rate of change in weights of the products is negligible. Particle Size Distribution Technique Advantages Elutriation appears more attractive than decantation, and has certain practical advantages in that the volume changes need no operator attention.

Technique Disadvantages The fluid velocity is not constant across the sorting column, being a minimum at the walls of the column, and a maximum at the centre. The separation size is calculated from the mean volume flow, so that some coarse particles are misplaced in the overflow, and some fines are misplaced into the coarse overflow. Particle Size Distribution 4. Microscopic Sizing and Image Analysis Microscopy can be used as an absolute method of particle size analysis since it is the only method in which individual mineral particles are observed and measured.

The image of a particle seen in a microscope is two dimensional and from this image an estimate of particle size must be made. Microscopic sizing involves comparing the projected area of a particle with the areas of reference circles, or graticules, of known sizes. Particle Size Distribution The optical microscope method is applicable to particles in the size range 0.8-150 m, and down to 0.001 m using electron microscopy. Manual analysis of microscope slides is tedious and error

prone; semi-automatic and automatic systems have been developed which speed up analyses and reduce the tedium of manual methods. The development of quantitative image analysis has made possible the rapid sizing of fine particles using small laboratory samples. Particle Size Distribution 5. Electrical Impedance Method The Beckman Coulter Counter makes use of current changes in an electrical circuit reduced by the presence of a particle. The instrument is applicable in the range 0.4-1200 m.

Particle Size Distribution 5. Laser Diffraction Methods Laser light is passed through a dilute suspension of the particles which circulate through an optical cell. The light is scattered by the particles, and is detected by a solid state detector which measures light intensity over a range of angles. A theory of light scattering is used to calculate the particle size distribution from the light distribution pattern, finer particles inducing more scatter than coarse.

Particle Size Distribution Particle Size Distribution: Graphical Representation A histogram is one of the simplest ways to display a particle size distribution. It is a particle frequency distribution that shows the percentage of particles found in each size range. Frequency can be plotted on the Y-axis by number count, surface area, or mass and particle diameter in m can be plotted on X-axis. Particle Size Distribution The median particle size (mass median particle diameter) is

the particle diameter that divides the frequency distribution in half. The arithmetic mean diameter, usually simply termed the mean diameter, is the arithmetic average particle diameter of the distribution. The mode represents the value that occurs most frequently in a distribution. In particle size distributions, the mode is the particle diameter that occurs most frequently. Particle Size Distribution References

Barry A. Wills, Tim Napier-Munn, Mineral Processing Technology", ISBN: 0750644508, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, Oct. 2006. Clive Washington, "Particle Size Analysis in Pharmaceutics and Other Industries", ISBN 0-203-98417, Ellis Horwood, 1992.

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