Basic Research Needs Workshops Superconductivity & Solid State

Basic Research Needs Workshops Superconductivity & Solid State

Basic Research Needs Workshops Superconductivity & Solid State Lighting Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting February 16, 2006 Harriet Kung Basic Energy Sciences Serving the Present, Shaping the Future http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/ Energy Security - The Terawatt Challenge oil 40 30 World Fuel Mix % gas Fossil fuels provide about 85% of the worlds energy. Although fossil reserves may last for another 100 years, we must seek alternative energy sources because: 2001 coal 20 nucl renew 10 0 ~85% fossil

25.00 TW 20.00 total 15.00 10.00 industrial 5.00 developi ngU See/fsu 0.00 1970 1990 2010 2030 1.5 380 -- CO2 -- Global Mean Temp 360 340 1.0 0.5 320

0 300 280 - 0.5 260 - 1.0 240 1000 - 1.5 1200 1400 1600 Year AD 1800 2000 Current World Energy Demand: ~13 TW, could double by 2050 & triple by 2100 Temperature (C) World Energy Demand The largest reserves petroleum, reside in politically unstable regions of the world. The production and release of CO2 pose the risk of climate change/global warming Atmospheric CO2 (ppmv) 50

BES Energy Security Plan Workshop: October 21-25, 2002 Report: March 2003 Considering the urgency of the energy problem, the magnitude of the needed scientific breakthroughs, and the historic rate of scientific discovery, current efforts will likely be too little, too late. Accordingly, BESAC believes that a new national energy research program is essential and must be initiated with the intensity and commitment of the Manhattan Project, and sustained until this problem is solved. Follow-on focused workshops seek to define the basic research needed to overcome both short-term technology showstoppers and long-term scientific grand challenges. A Comprehensive Decades-to-Century Energy Security Plan Research for a Secure Energy Future Supply, Distribution, Consumption, and Carbon Management Decision Science and Complex Systems Science Carbon Energy Sources Carbon Management No-net-carbon Energy Sources Distribution/ Storage Energy Consumption Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Stewardship Coal

Petroleum CO2 Sequestration Geologic Nuclear Fission Electric Grid Transportation Nuclear Fusion Electric Storage Buildings Renewables Hydrogen Industry Terrestrial Natural Gas Oil shale, tar sands, hydrates, Oceanic Carbon Recycle Global Climate Change Science Hydropower Biomass Geothermal Wind Solar

BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES Serving the Present, Shaping the Future Ocean Alternate Fuels Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use May 13-15, 2003 Workshop Chair: Millie Dresselhaus Co-Chairs: George Crabtree Michelle Buchanan (MIT) (ANL) (ORNL) Breakout Sessions: Hydrogen Production Tom Mallouk, PSU & Laurie Mets, U. Chicago Hydrogen Storage and Distribution Kathy Taylor, GM (retired) & Puru Jena, VCU Fuel Cells and Novel Fuel Cell Materials Frank DiSalvo, Cornell & Tom Zawodzinski, CWRU High priority research areas as identified by the workshop report: - Novel Materials for Hydrogen Storage - Membranes for Separation, Purification, and Ion Transport - Design of Catalysts at the Nanoscale - Solar Hydrogen Production - Bio-Inspired Materials and Processes Report: August 2003 Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization Workshop April 21-24, 2005

Workshop Chair: Nate Lewis, Caltech Co-chair: George Crabtree, ANL Panel Chairs: Solar Electric: Art Nozik (NREL) Solar Fuels: Michael Wasielewski (Northwestern) Crosscutting & Solar Thermal: Paul Alivisatos (LBNL) Plenary Speakers: J. Mazer, DOE/EERE; M. Hoffert, NYU; T. Feist, GE Workshop Charge To identify basic research needs and opportunities in solar electric, fuels, thermal and related areas, with a focus on new, emerging and scientifically challenging areas that have the potential for significant impact in science and technologies. 200 attendees - universities, national labs, industry, Federal agencies and foreign scientists Foreign 15% Lab 28% Federal 16% Private 7% Univ 34% BES Solar Energy Utilization Workshop Report Workshop: April 2005 Report: July 2005

Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. Huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Much of the researchers optimism is based on the continuing, rapid worldwide progress in nanoscience and molecular biology. Powerful new methods of nanoscale fabrication, characterization, and simulation - using tools that were not available as little as five years ago - create new opportunities for understanding and manipulating the molecular and electronic pathways of solar energy conversion. Additional optimism arises from impressive strides in molecular biology that will soon bring the secrets of photosynthesis and natural bio-catalysis into sharp focus. http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/SEU_rpt.pdf Basic Research Needs for Superconductivity Workshop Research for a Secure Energy Future Supply, Distribution, Consumption, and Carbon Management Decision Science and Complex Systems Science Carbon Energy Sources Carbon Management No-net-carbon Energy Sources Distribution/ Storage Energy Consumption Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Stewardship Coal Petroleum

CO2 Sequestration Geologic Nuclear Fission Electric Grid Transportation Nuclear Fusion Electric Storage Buildings Renewables Hydrogen Industry Terrestrial Natural Gas Oil shale, tar sands, hydrates, Oceanic Carbon Recycle Global Climate Change Science Hydropower Biomass Geothermal Wind Solar BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES

Serving the Present, Shaping the Future Ocean Alternate Fuels Superconductivity: Frontier of Discovery-Class Science 1913 1972 1973 1987 Onnes BCS Giaver Josephson Mller Bednorz Discovery Hg Onnes 1911 Meissner Ochsenfeld Bardeen Cooper Ginzburg Abrikosov Schreiffer theory Landau vortices 1933

transport 1950 phenomenology 1957 1957 electrodynamics flux patterns (Courtesy of G. Crabtree) Abrikosov Ginzburg Leggett Josephson tunneling Cuprate HTS Mller & Bednorz MgB2 NaCoO2 H2O 1962 1986 2001 2003 microscopic theory

phonon pairing thermodynamics 2003 layered metals exotic pairing vortex melting glasses/dynamics two gaps water as a structural element Superconductivity: Use-inspired Research for Energy Applications Energy Distribution Electricity losses in the grid account for >10% of all electricity generated. Transmission limitations increase blackout risks. Superconductors can transmit electricity with near perfect efficiency and much higher capacity. Energy Production and Consumption Superconducting materials provide higher efficiency in performance, size/weight reduction and better voltage regulation for power generators and motors for transportation needs. (Courtesy of G. Crabtree) 5-MW superconductor motor 70% smaller & lighter than conventional motors with all cooling systems figured in American Superconductor

HTS generators 1/2 to 2/3 the losses of a conventional generator retain high efficiency down to 5% of the rated load BES Superconductivity Workshop Chairs and Charge Chair: Dr. John Sarrao Los Alamos National Laboratory Co-Chair: Dr. Wai-Kwong Kwok Argonne National Laboratory Workshop Charge: To identify basic research needs and opportunities in high temperature superconductivity with a focus on new, emerging, and scientifically challenging areas that have the potential to have significant impact in science and energy relevant technologies, including electricity transmission and electric grid. BES Superconductivity Workshop Breakout Panels and Sub-panels Fundamental Material Issues Ivan Bozovic (Brookhaven) Improving known superconductors Novel fabrication/manipulations Technologically relevant synthesis Engineering current Physical Phenomena Seamus Davis (Cornell); Leonardo Civale (LANL) Underlying mechanisms and their observable manifestations Vortex phenomenology

Emerging tools Cross-Cutting Theory Mechanisms, conventional and unconventional Computational superconductivity Translating fundamentals to applications Applications Igor Mazin (NRL) Dave Christen (ORNL) Disruptive Technologies Smart and fast-reacting grid Magnet applications (DRAFT) BES Superconductivity Workshop Key Dates 2005 October Workshop planning 2005 December Finalize Charge and Chairs 2006 January Panel chairs and structure 2006 February

Technology Office briefing & panelist invitations 2006 March-April Technology Perspective draft 2006 May 8-10 Workshop 2006 June-July Workshop draft Report 2006 August Release final Workshop Report BES Superconductivity Workshop Logistics Workshop Date: May 8-10, 2006 Location: Sheraton National Hotel, Arlington, VA (shuttle service to Pentagon City Metrorail Station) Plenary Speakers: Paul Chu (Houston/Hong Kong) George Crabtree (ANL) ZX Shen (Stanford) Mike Norman (ANL) Alex Malozemoff (AMSC) DOE Technology Program Overview: Dr. James Daley (DOE/OE) BES Coordinator: Jim Horwitz BESAC members are welcome to attend. Basic Research Needs for Solid State Lighting Workshop

Research for a Secure Energy Future Supply, Distribution, Consumption, and Carbon Management Decision Science and Complex Systems Science Carbon Energy Sources Carbon Management No-net-carbon Energy Sources Distribution/ Storage Energy Consumption Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Stewardship Coal Petroleum CO2 Sequestration Geologic Nuclear Fission Electric Grid Transportation Nuclear Fusion Electric Storage Buildings Renewables Hydrogen

Industry Terrestrial Natural Gas Oil shale, tar sands, hydrates, Oceanic Carbon Recycle Global Climate Change Science Hydropower Biomass Geothermal Wind Solar BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES Serving the Present, Shaping the Future Ocean Alternate Fuels Lighting is a Large Fraction of Energy Consumption Energy Consumption (Quads) 1000 U.S. Energy Consumption Efficiencies of Energy Technologies in Buildings ~96 Quads 100

~37 Quads Energy Electricity 10 Illumination 42% Incandescent 41% Fluorescent 17% HID ~8 Quads Projected 1 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Heating: 70-80% Electrical Motors: 85-95% Incandescent Lighting: ~5% Fluorescent Lighting: ~25% Metal Halide Lighting: ~30%

2010 2020 Lighting consumes ~20% of U.S electricity and yet has very low efficiency Basic Energy Sciences Serving the Present, Shaping the Future Solid State Lighting: Semiconductor-Based Lighting Technology Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) III-V semiconductorsbased device High brightness point sources Potential high efficiency & long lifetime Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) Organic semiconductorsbased device Large area diffuse sources Thin and flexible Ease of fabrication Cree XLampTM Current LEDs are predominantly in monochrome or niche applications. High brightness, broad-band white light is needed for general illumination applications. UDC PHOLEDTM Solid State Lighting Offers Great Potential for Energy Savings

25% - 30% 2020 Target 50% ~25% ~5% 50% conversion efficiency (200 lm/W) in SSL in 2025 could lead to: Reduced electricity consumption (525 TW-hr/Yr) and cost ($35 B/Yr) Decrease in new power plant needs (75 GW) and CO 2 emission (87 Mtons) Ref: J.Y. Tsao, Laser Focus World, May 2003 and references therein BES Solid State Lighting Workshop Chairs and Charge Chair: Dr. Julia Phillips Sandia National Laboratories Co-Chair: Dr. Paul Burrows Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Workshop Charge: To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying light emitting diode and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges with potential for significant long-term impact on energy-efficient and productivity-enhancing solid state lighting. Highlighted areas will include organic and inorganic materials and nanostructure physics and chemistry, photon manipulation, wavelength down/up conversion, and novel materials and approaches. BES SSL Workshop Breakout Panels and Sub-panels LED Science Robert Davis (CMU) & Jerry Simmons (SNL) LED synthesis and properties Carrier transport, injection, doping and recombination Light extraction and stimulated emission Wavelength conversion and color mixing Materials packaging issues

OLED Science George Malliaras (Cornell) & Franky So (U Florida) OLED synthesis and properties Carrier energetics, injection and transport Photo-physics Device architectures and light management Cross-Cutting and Novel Materials/Optical Physics Jim Misewich (BNL), Arto Nurmikko (Brown) & Darryl Smith (LANL) Materials interfaces and new materials systems Electronic excitations, dynamics and energetics Photon manipulation and management Tools for solid-state lighting research (theoretical and experimental) (DRAFT) BES SSL Workshop Key Dates 2005 October Workshop planning start 2005 December Charge and Chairs 2006 January Panel chairs, date and location 2006 February Panel structure and panelist invitations 2006 March Technology Office briefing 2006 April Technology Perspective draft

2006 May 22-24 Workshop 2006 June-July Workshop Report full draft 2006 August Release final Workshop Report BES Solid State Lighting Workshop Logistics Workshop Date: May 22-24, 2006 Location: Marriott Bethesda, Pooks Hill, Washington DC (Shuttle service between hotel and Red Line - Medical Center Station) Proposed Program: May 22 May 22 May 24 May 24 AM PM May 23 PM AM PM May 25 Plenary Opening Session Breakout Panel Discussions Plenary Closing Session Report Writing by Core Group Plenary Speakers: LED Perspective: OLED Perspective:

DOE/EERE SSL Program Overview: George Craford (LumiLeds) Alan Heeger (UCSB) Jim Brodrick (DOE/EERE) BES Coordinator: Jeff Tsao BESAC members are welcome to attend. Workshop Output The workshop output will be a concise and authoritative report suitable for wide distribution. Report will be published within three months after workshop. The format of the report should follow those of the hydrogen and solar workshop reports. A tentative outline is: -- Executive Summary and Conclusions -- Introduction Overviews of Technology Challenges, Science Challenges and Knowledge Gaps, Panel Reports -- Basic Research Grand Challenges -- Report from Panel #1 -- Report from Panel #2 -- Report from Cross-Cutting Panel -- Appendix 1: Technology Perspective (Overview, Potential, Challenges) -- Appendix 2: Workshop Agenda, Attendees, etc.

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