Nov/Dec, 2011 CIVIL ENGINEERING S.D PATEL POLYTECHNIC,GADHA MEHSANA -384002 CERTIFICATE TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that Mr. Patel Singer , Prajapati Kalpesh , Sathvara Sahil , Shah Chintan , Trivedi Priyank Student of D.E. Semester 6th (Civil

Engineering) has completed his one full semester project work titled Foundation Of Bridge On Black Cotton Soil satisfactorily in partial fulfillment of requirement of Diploma of Civil Engineering of Gujarat Technology University, in the year 2012. MR. R.D.PATEL MR. V.V.PATEL H.O.D. (CIVIL) S.D.P,GADHA CONSTRUCTION OF MINOR

BRIDGE Site Name :- Construction of minor bridge At- parab , To -haldhru road Ta. Kamraj,dist-surat. Company :- Akshay Construction,Surat CONSTRUCTION OF MINOR BRIDGE Parts

of bridge : 1. Foundation 2. Pier 3. Abutment 4. Abutment and Pier cap 5. Slab

6. Wearing coat Type of soil : Black cotton soil

Nature of Black cotton Soil : BC soils absorb water heavily, swell, become soft, loose strength, easily and has at tendency to heave during wet condition. BC soils shrink in volume and develop cracks during summer. They are by extreme hardness and cracks when dry.

Soils are called highly expansive when free swell index exceeds 50 undergo volumetric changes leading to pavement distortion, cracking unevenness due to seasonal wetting and drying. BC soils produce a CBR value of 2 to 5% if compacted efficiently.

A SOIL TESTING REPORT DESCRIPTION Foundation : The foundation is the main part of any construction. The stability or the strength of the structure depend on foundation. There are different types of foundations for the

different types of soils. Types of foundations used are as under. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pile foundation

deep foundation mat foundation caisson foundation shallow foundation Pile foundation Shallow foundation Mat foundation

Cassion foundation Following are the advantages of composite bridges. It leads to reduction in deflection and vibrations.

It leads to speed in construction. It proves to be economical. It results in better quality control.

The cost of formwork is reduced. The cost of foundations for abutments is reduced. The cost of transportation is minimized.

The overall depth of beam for a composite construction is reduced and it leads to savings in lengths of approaches. PROBLEM DETECTED IN FOUNDATION 1. Probable Mistakes in checking of load bearing

capacity of soil: The design of foundation is depended on load bearing capacity of particular types of soils. If engineer created any mistakes to find out load bearing capacity of soil then automatically wrong

foundation design is created. Because of that mistake foundation gone a failure. Soil of this site is black cotton soil and load bearing capacity of black cotton soil is less. Thats why open foundation is used here.

Possibility of Cracks in foundation : It is possible that some cracks may develop in the foundation of this structure. That cracks may occur by using low quality of concrete or because of not removing the air voids during the placing and consolidating of concrete work. It may also occur because of not

using the vibrator during consolidation of concrete. As the vibrator removes the air voids from the foundation. The cracks are also occur if curing is not carried out in proper way and in proper time. 2. Structural Defect Produced by Interruption in Concreting and Low Slump Concrete

FAILURE CASE CASE HISTORY Background Similar to Case History , this project was under construction when failures occurred. This project is also an access road with prestressed concrete bridge over a river in Sarawak. The proposed heights of the approach embankments on both sides of the abutments were about 5m with side slopes of 1v(vertical) to 1.5h(horizontal). These embankments were constructed over 25m

thick of soft coastal and riverine alluvium clay followed by dense silty Sand and very stiff silty clay. The soft alluvium generally has SPT N value of zero and average moisture content of more than 70%. . Overview of partially completed bridge Layout of the Bridge in this Case Subsoil condition

Slip Failures of the Approach Embankments A deep seated slip failure occurred at the approach embankment about 25m from Abutment II. It happened when the fill reached about 3m high. Fig. shows the shear drop after removal of some of the fill near the abutment. Shear Drop at about 25m from Tilted Abutment

Abutment II has tilted away from the river with the magnitude of about 550mm at the top of the abutment at the time of the site inspection by the Authors who were carrying out geotechnical investigation of the failure. The tilt translates into an angular distortion of 1/6. Due to the excessive angular distortion, the integrity of the pile driven to set into the stiffer stratum has also been affected as it exceeds the normal threshold of about 1/75. Due to the tilt of the Abutment II away from Pier II, a gap of about 300mm wide was observed between the two bridge decks at the

piers pile cap. Fig shows the photograph of the tilt at the Abutment II and the gap between two bridge decks. The failure also caused the pile cap at Pier II to tilt as shown in Fig the schematic diagram of the possible slip plane relative to the deformed structures. Tilted Abutment and Observed Gap between Bridge Decks These observations infer that the slip of the Approach

Embankment near Abutment II is deep seated and is consistent with the depth of the soft alluvium. The cause of the rotational slip failure is due to the weak subsoil strata viz. unable to support the weight of the approach embankment. The weight of embankment initiated the consolidation settlement of the soft subsoil and mobilized the low shear strength of the slip failure plane. The use of the 6m wood piles and RC piles offers little lateral resistance and instead, extends the rotational slip deeper into the soft subsoil. At the pier, the bridge decks, being simply supported and fixed to the abutment via bearing pad, had moved along with the

displacement of the abutment. Titled pilecap at Pier II Schematic of the slip failure Foundation Design Process : o Scope & Field Reconnaissance

o Field Explorations & Field Testing o Laboratory Testing o

Foundation Design o Foundation Reports o Specifications o

Construction Support Specifications Piling Estimated Pile Lengths (steel piles) Number of Pile Splices Tip Treatment (open or closed end, reinforcement) Driving Criteria Wave Equation Input (if applicable)

Pile freeze, preboring or jetting allowed Shafts Designated Friction or End Bearing Permanent Casing Requirements Crosshole Sonic Log (CSL) testing required Safety Precautions :

1. To limit the load on the soil to 5.5 tonnes/ if water is liable to to find an access to the foundations, the limit of loading should be restricted to 4.9 tonnes/

2. To take the foundation to such depths where the cracks cease to extend. The minimum depth of foundation should be not Less than 1.5 mt. 3. Construction in black cotton soil should be

undertaken during dry season. 4. If the depth of the black cotton soil at a given site is only 1 to 1.5 m, the entire black cotton soil above the hard bed may be completely removed and the foundation may be laid on the hard bed below.

Precautions have to be taken when making the structure on soft soil : 1) Use the deep foundation for structure like pile foundation. Pile Design:

Most Common Steel Pipe Piles (open or closed end) H-Piles Less Common Prestressed Concrete Timber

Bearing Resistance (compression and tension) Lateral Resistance

Settlement and Downdrag Analysis Corrosion Potential/Protection Tip Protection

Pile Drivability (construction) Group Settlement, Group Effects 2) Providing suitable drainage system for bridge. 3) Make the filter media of rubble for side of

abutment of bridge. 4) Design the lightweight superstructure of bridge. Because if weight of superstructure is low then load comes on foundation is less. Superstructure Points to consider in mind while doing the foundation on Black cotton soil / clay soil.

1) Always give soil treatment to subgrade before placement of concrete. 2) Always apply vibrating equipment after placement of concrete. 3) Mix suitable admixture in concrete . Admixture

Give more strength to concrete & reduces cement level i.e low consumption of cement which reduces the cost of constrution. Conclusions The project is limited to the design of foundation,pier and abutment considering

in the black cotton soil. which have very dangerous behavior and as such we have taken depth of foundation as depth from H.F.L to the depth of foundation we have taken the remedial measure to project to the foundation against sliding ,overturning so that its should be stable . we have made study of failure of bridges all around the world. precautions measure they have suggested that is also taken in consideration. It is a live project Constructed at parab

haldaru kamrej , surat. No doubt they have considered same is suggested in this project . So the bridge will be a stable. REFERENCES Concrete Bridge Practical. Bridge Engineering (Rangwalas Book) Site of Akshay Construction,Surat


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