Authors: Maureen Barry and Joan Naturale NTID/RIT Date

Authors: Maureen Barry and Joan Naturale NTID/RIT Date

Authors: Maureen Barry and Joan Naturale NTID/RIT Date submitted to - 3/28/06 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: [email protected] To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the authors. "In comparing various authors with one another, I have discovered that some of the gravest and latest writers have transcribed, word for word, from former writers, without making acknowledgement." Pliny the Elder (23 AD-79 AD), Natural History

Academic Dishonesty: Digital Cheating and Plagiarizing in the 21st Century Log on. Search. Click. Download. Cut. Order. Copy/Paste. Email. IM. Snap a Picture. Post on Web . Maureen Barry Joan Naturale 13 March 2006 Contents

Introduction Plagiarism on the Rise Plagiarism Definition RIT Policy on Academic Dishonesty Detecting Plagiarism Famous Cases Cheating Culture What Can We Do Contents, continued

Technology Where Papers Can be Found Online Tutorials Library Resources Strategies for Research Papers Helping to Combat Plagiarism MLA and APA Resources Books References Ramifications of cheating What would happen if our doctors, lawyers, accountants, engineers, and other professionals cheated their way though school?

Discuss with students / What Do We Know About Plagiarism Online Quizzes ule6/05-paraphrasing.html High School Cheating Plagiarism on the Rise Some statistics and facts According to a 2003 study by McCabe 18,000 college students in 23 institutions, 38% of the undergraduate students indicated they had engaged in one or more instances of cut & paste plagiarism

using the Internet in the past year - paraphrasing or copying a few sentences of material from the Internet without citing the source." In a similar 2001 survey only 10% acknowledged cut & paste plagiarism Almost half of the students (44%) indicated they considered such behavior trivial or not cheating at all, perhaps explaining its widespread occurrence Approximately one-quarter of the 2,175 graduate students participating in the survey also reported engaging in cut & paste plagiarism from Internet and written sources 80% college bound students admit to cheating on schoolwork, yet 95% never get caught.

90% students believe cheaters are never caught or disciplined 257 chief student affairs officers across the country believe the cheating problem has not been addressed adequately Plagiarism Definition Plagiarism is defined as presenting someone elses work, including the work of other students, as ones own. Any ideas or materials taken from another source for either written or oral use must be fully acknowledged, unless the information is common knowledge. What is considered common knowledge may differ from course to course.

Discussion: Students often have a lack of understanding about why it is unethical/immoral-definitions are not enough Guidelines http:// A student must not adopt or reproduce ideas, opinions, theories, formulas, graphics, or pictures of another person without acknowledgment. A student must give credit to the originality of others and acknowledge an indebtedness whenever: Directly quoting another persons actual words, whether oral or written; Using another persons ideas, opinions, or theories; Paraphrasing the words, ideas, opinions, or theories of others, whether oral or written; Borrowing facts, statistics, or illustrative material; or

Offering materials assembled or collected by others in the form of projects or collections without acknowledgment. RIT Policy On Academic Dishonesty php3 The Rochester Institute of Technology does not condone any form of academic dishonesty. Any act of improperly representing another person's work as one's own is construed as an act of academic dishonesty. These acts include, but are not limited to, plagiarism in any form, or use of information and materials not authorized by the instructor during an examination. If a faculty member judges a student to be guilty of some form of academic dishonesty, the student may be given a failing grade for that piece of work or for the course, depending upon the severity of the misconduct. If the student believes the action by the instructor to be

incorrect or the penalty too severe, appeal may be made to the Academic Conduct Committee of the college in which the course is offered. Detection Clues Quotes do not have citations Citations are to material not owned by library Citations cant be verified- made up by student Citations do not match works cited Citations older than 5 years Student cant identify citations or provide copies of the cited (false citations) Inactive URLs References made to historical persons/events in the current sense Student cant summarize the main points or answer questions about the paper Detection Clues

Language Writing style, language, vocabulary, tone, grammar is above or below what the student normally produces Googled sentences and Thesaurized sentences we areyou are Sentence lengths long Writing style changes from section to section Use scholarly adjectives Illogical sentences/sections that go off topic-contains a few paragraphs to bring in line with topic Strange grammar or syntax (could be the result of using a web translation service to translate a copied paper into French or German and then back to English to foil detection). detecting.html Detection Clues Look for gray/strange text at the top/bottom of printed pages Too beautifully or badly formatted.. Page numbers, headings or spacing dont look right Mixed citation styles

Web print-outs from term paper mills with URLs or web site page numbers Quotations that sound out of place, are there bibliographic entries for them Does the paper address the assignment requirements or are portions left out? Is it the correct type of paper - descriptive, narrative? Different fonts in different sections of the paper from cutting and pasting Detecting Plagiarism: 200+ faculty: saves time checking plagiarism (Buehler, 2006)

10,832+ students have submitted 25,062 + papers and the papers are in the database (Buehler, 2006) Integrates with webcourse such as IdeaTools Over 90% of papers submitted have little or no plagiarism Appears to discourage and prevent plagiarism Educational tool to instruct students on proper use of internet resources and citations.

For ex., some professors ask students to submit drafts and correct the paper digitally and work on citations. How Does Turnitin Work? Papers are cross-referenced against the: Internet (more than 4.5 billion pages indexed). Millions of student papers already submitted to Turnitin ProQuest databases and The Gutenburg Turnabout time <5 mins, 24 hrs, after due date>

Turnitin prepares a color-coded originality report for each submitted paper Student may view originality report Faculty review reports to make final determination on plagiarism level. Did the student use quotes and paraphrases correctly? If interested in setting up account, email Joan at [email protected] Cheating Culture

Why Do Students Cheat? Lack of knowledge of what plagiarism really is Grades/College Admission/Competition Time Management, Laziness, Stress Pressure from peers and parents Anxiety/Fear Lack of Oversight by Professors-No Consequences Technology Weak Skills, Ignorance, Cultural Differences Negative Role Models Anti-education attitude Get too much help from tutors

Famous Cases in the News Doris Goodwin-Historian Stephen Ambrose-Historian Byrony Lavery-Playwright Janet Dailey and Nora RobertsNovelist Jacque Loussier and Eminem-Musician

George Harrison-Musician Senator Joseph Biden Professional Jason Blair-NY Times reporter Ken Powers-New England Patriot (plagiarized Sports Illustrated)

Tom Squiteri-USA Today (plagiarized from Indianapolis Star) Stephen Glass-Reporter for New Republic Firefighters-Whites cheated on exams Professors-Benson Tong (Wichita State turned down for tenure and transferred to Gallaudet) and George Carney (Oklahoma State-barred from teaching) Clery/Minister-U.S. News World Report

Cheating Culture Rationalization/ Excuses Poor meI have no choice Not Taught to Cite/ Paraphrase/ Take Notes images/03_01_dialog. gif (Lathrop & Foss, 2000). Evolution of Cheating Pre-technology Copy from friends

5_07_Q4.gif Parents write papers or help too much Fraternities, Sororities paper files Rubber Band/Water Bottles/Cap Sign Language/Tapping/ Coughing Write answers on hands Pay someone to write your papers (Lathrop & Foss, 2000) Technology, continued Cell phones-codes

Calculators-Electronic cheat sheet Camera Phones-can post on web immediately Computers Pagers-Use IM, Email answers (vibrate, no beeps) PDAs and Digital Watches (infrared transmitter) Internet-Cut and Paste Culture

Underground Websites-share papers (Lathrop & Foss, 2000) Technology, continued Chat Rooms, Online Whiz, Message Board Paper Mills-Free and for Fee Foreign Language Classes-use F.L. translators

Computer Networks-Load papers and exams-share Fax Create small cheat sheets on photocopier Headsets-listen to recorded dates, formulas $3,000 pen with tiny transmitter/cordless earpiece Minature wireless video cams-get answers back via pager

(Lathrop & Foss, 2000) Where Papers Can Be Found On the Internet Databases Conference Proceedings on the web Example of a good paper (won an award) Student posts paper on the web Paper Mills-Free and fee tations/mills2.html http:// dex.html Strategies for Research Process Make term papers specific with detailed questions that must be answered Avoid broad topics or select your own topic assignments Do some of the research process in classfor ex., outlining, brainstorming, free writing

While doing research, emphasize taking notes and citing where its from (Noodlebib annotation) Set up writing conferences to work through drafts Have 1-2 drafts posted online (Barry, Ishman & Mittelman, 2005) Continued Show example of MLA or APA paper Have different sections due over the quarter at specific times and work on the sections

Give points to sections of the paper Ex: 200 points Thesis statement/abstract (10) focusing a topic, initial research Proposal (10) Outlines (10) finding background info, reading books/articles Annotated Bibliography (20) summarizing the info found Rough Draft or Working Notes (30) peer review Cited References(20) Final Paper (100)

Assignment Design Resources Preventing Plagiarism Quote Summary Paraphrase Your Own Ideas MLA and APA Style Guides APA (5th ed.) and MLA Style (6th ed.) Guides at Wallace http://

Noodlebib Citation Builder http:// ml Possible Activities View the movie Shattered Glass about the New Republic writer Stephen Glass and use the activities suggested at this link http:// ndex_flash.html

Try to apply the plagiarism concept to students majors and discuss examples. ETC Videos Code of Honor Shattered Glass 20/20 (VH 1174), Primetime, (VH1083) 48 Hrs (VH 1426) Online Tutorials Tutorials You Quote It! You Quote It, It,

YouYou NoteNote It! LOBO, The Library Online Basic Orientation LOBO, The Library Online Basic Orientation Bruin Success with Less Stress Bruin Success with Less Stress The Plagiarism Court: You Be the Judge Tutorial The Plagiarism Court: You Be the Judge

Paraphrasing Tutorial Practice ml WMU Paraphrasing Practice ml How to Introduce Quotes How to Introduce Quotes ro.html Book References PN167.H37, 3rd floor

LB3609.L28 2000, 4 floor Book References PN171.F56 L56 2004 PN167 .B68 2004 The Right Way to Paraphrase and Cite (adapted from Lipson) When you rely on others work or ideas, acknowledge it openly. When you use their ideas or data, give them credit When you use their exact words, use quotation marks plus a citation

When you paraphrase use your own voice and cite the original source. Make sure your language doesnt mimic the original. Lipson, continued When you draw on others work, present it fairly. No distortions, no straw men. When you present empirical material, show where you acquired it so others can check the data themselves. (The exception is commonly known material, which doesnt need to be cited). So, when in doubt, CITE!!

References Austin, M. J., & Brown, L. D. (1999, October). Internet plagiarism: Developing strategies to curb student academic dishonesty. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(1), 21-33. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from Science Direct database: scidirect/scidirect.htmlscidirect/scidirect.html Barry, M., Ishman, S., & Mittelman, L. (2005, September). Plagiarism: Why it is such a problem for Deaf and second language learners. Presentation presented at Originality, Imitation, Plagiarism: A Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Writing, Ann Arbor, MI. Barry, M., Ishman, S., & Mittelman, L. (2005, June). Plagiarism: The bane of our existence. Presentation presented at English Think Tank: Literacy in the Classroom and Beyond, Rochester, NY.

Barry, M., & Naturale, J. (2005, July 20). Log on. search. click. download. cut. copy. paste. order. email. im. snap a picture: Digital plagiarism in the 21st century. Presentation presented at First Year Experience Workshop , RIT, Rochester, NY. Bates, P., & Fain, M. (2005, September 12). Cheating 101: Internet paper mills. In Kimball library: Presentations. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Coastal Carolina University Library Web site: Buehler, M. (2006-06, Winter). Copyright corner. Scholarship at RIT, 4. Cheating culture (2004, February 14). Fox 5 news. Retrieved March 10, 2006, from http:// Harris, R. (2004, November 17). Anti-plagiarism strategies for research papers. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from How to recognize plagiarism. (2005, June 24). Definition of plagiarism. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Indiana University, School of Education Web site: definition.html IParadigms. (2006). Turnitin. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from home.html Jayne, E. A. (2002). Plagiarism? Its your call! In Searchpath (module 6). Retrieved March 10, 2006, from Western Michigan University Library Web site: searchpath/module6/05-paraphrasing.html

Johnson, D. (2004, March). Plagiarism-proofing assignments. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(7), 549-52. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from Academic Search Elite database: Kearley, J. (2005). Utlizing: Plagiarism. In Tutorial for info power (chap. 5). Retrieved March 10, 2006, from University of Wisconsin Libraries Web site: utilizing7.html Lathrop, A., & Foss, K. (2000). Student cheating and plagiarism in the internet era: A wakeup call. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Leland, B. H. (2002, January 29). Plagiarism and the web. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from Western Illinois University Web site:

Lesko, J. P. (2006). Famous plagiarists. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from War on Web site: Lion Gates Entertainment. (2003). Shattered Glass. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from http:// Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college: How to prepare citations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Muha, D. (2003, August 28). New study confirms internet plagiarism Is prevalent. In Rutgers media relations. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Rutgers State University Web site: Naturale, J. (2005). Turnitin. In Library resources. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from NTID Ideatools Web site:

Nowakowski, F. (2005, September 12). Detecting plagiarism. In Faculty resources: Plagiarism and intellectual honesty. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Dalhousie University Web site: Posters. (n.d.). SHA Website. Retrieved March 10, 2006, from Brigham Young University, Student Honor Association Web site Rambo, R. (2002, August 31). Preventing plagiarism from the web. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Illinois Valley Community College Web site: RIT policy on academic dishonesty. (1977, September). RIT myCourses. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from RIT Center for Student Conduct and Conflict Management Services Web site: http:// Sauer, J. (2005, August). A guide for instructors. In Plagiarism. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Univeristy of South Alabama Library Web site: plagiarism.html Spalenka, G. (Ill.) (2003, September/October). Whose idea was that? In Stanford magazine. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from Stanford Alumni Association Web site: http:// Swartz, P. (n.d.). Oops, I plagiarized. Retrieved March 11, 2006, from UCLA Library Web site: Weinraub, C. J. (Producer), Gibson, C. (Writer), & Paul, G. (Director). (2004, April 29). Primetime: Cheating crisis in Americas schools New Hudson, MI: ABC News Productions.

Additional Resources Ethics Center for Academic Integrity Plagiarism and Copyright Resources from Wallace Library Publishing and Scholarship Support Center at Wallace Library

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