Production Planning - Pennsylvania State University
LEVERAGING GIS FOR PROJECTING DATA IN VIRTUAL EARTH Jason Setzer Penn State University CONTENTS MGIS Capstone Presentation Introduction Project Background Production Overview Problem Description Tackling the Problem Model Registration Conclusions/Results Jason Setzer Penn State University INTRODUCTION Jason Setzer MGIS Candidate
Completed my undergraduate degree at Louisiana State University Ive worked in the Mapping/GIS industry since 1997 I work at Microsoft as Program Manager Production Planning Lead I joined MS at the inception of the 3D Virtual Earth campaign where I lead as small team who uses GIS to manage the 3D buildings content of VE, including vendor outsourcing, quality control, landmark modeling, etc. Jason Setzer Penn State University WHAT IS VIRTUAL EARTH? The Microsoft Virtual Earth platform is an integrated set of services that provides quality geospatial data, rich imagery, cutting-edge technology, and dependable performance Microsoft 2008 Among its many data offerings, the heart of the VE experience
centers on photorealistic 3D textured buildings. Jason Setzer Penn State University WHERE DOES GIS FIT IN? Microsoft is a Software Company The model for Virtual Earth was to first create a highly automated software solution that could be used to produce the desired content for multiple cities. The VE design team consists largely of developers, testers, and program managers experts in process management, software development, and even 3D modeling. Jason Setzer Penn State University
WHERE DOES GIS FIT IN? Despite the strength of the software development culture there remained some what of an unfamiliarity with industry practices relative to: Mapping GIS Photogrammetry Geo-Spatial Project Management This is where I enter the picture: with the task of taking
internal software tools and applying GIS production workflows and project management approaches for the purposes of Virtual Earth content creation. Jason Setzer Penn State University PRODUCTION OVERVIEW In Microsofts VE Production Group project areas and priorities are determined by factors like: Population Income Connectivity Online Search Usage Ambitious goals include producing
hundreds of world wide cities with full 3D textured building models. Jason Setzer Penn State University PRODUCTION OVERVIEW Production commences upon the receipt of: Aerial Imagery Surveyed Ground Control Digital Elevation Data The bundle adjustment precisely calculates the exterior orientation of each image in the project. A required input to 3D textured building production are digitized
rooftop outlines. Modeling and creation of rooftop DXFs is undertaken at the completion of an aerial bundle. Jason Setzer Penn State University BUILDING PIPELINE Vendors digitize roof tops of buildings from stereo images and deliver the compiled models as TINed DXF files. Jason Setzer Penn State University BUILDING PIPELINE The rooftop DXFs are extruded to a terrain model to add buildings walls and complete the geometry.
Jason Setzer Penn State University BUILDING PIPELINE Textures for each facet are derived from aerial imagery to complete the photo textured final product. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION A problem frequently encountered in photogrammetric work is conversion from one rectangular coordinate system to another. This is because photogrammetrists commonly determine coordinates of unknown points in convenient arbitrary rectangular coordinate systems. -Wolf and Dewitt, Elements of Photogrammetry The Virtual Earth building texturing pipeline was built to use a local arbitrary coordinate system: Local Space Rectangular
(LSR) LSR offers an advantage of smaller coordinate values and file sizes It also offers a convenient means of avoiding the implication of earth curvature when constructing the 3D models. However, the arbitrary definition of an LSR coordinate system is not available to any C.O.T.S. reprojection utilities and changes with each project area. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Version 1 The V1 vendor modeling criteria: Compile everything greater than 3 stories
V1 Limitations: All data is in DXF format All data is in LSR coordinates Extremely difficult to reference a specific file/building Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Version 1 Summary Wow that building looks bad, should we have it recompiled? I dont know, is it a really important one? Hey, this building keeps failing in processing, can we abandon it? I dont know, is it significant? So, did that really important landmark
turnout OK? Which file was it again? -Anyone working at Microsofts Boulder, Colorado office circa 2006. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION One mans convenience is another mans grief. Author Unknown Despite the design convenience of building the 3D Textured Buildings pipeline to use arbitrary local space coordinates, there was fallout in terms of: Quality: Verifying the completeness of vendor deliverables. Evaluating the severity/significance of buildings that have failed processing.
Ensuring that important landmarks, which are often the most complex and problematic, are included in the final data set. Making sure that what is being invoiced corresponds with what is delivered and is desired. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Custom Tool Requirements: Response/Feedback: 1. Convert DXFs to shapefile format Developer resources are a. Full 3D representation of the trimaxed for several release surface cycles
b. Simplified Footprint Doesn't immediately impact c. Nodes only version fiscal year production goals 2. Must retain original file name as an Other bugs/must have attribute features taking precedence. 3. Optional height above DEM reference 4. Use GeoTrans as coordinate conversion engine to support at a minimum: a. UTM b. Geodetic c. HAE heights d. MSL heights Jason Setzer Penn State University
MODEL REGISTRATION TriSurfShp.exe Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Version 2 Now Practical to: Assess the completeness of deliverables. Identify buildings which have failed processing. Verify that essential buildings are in the
data set. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Version 2 Summary Gains resulting from the TriSurfShp tool were significant, yet its impact was mainly limited to management and QC of received data. The reverse problem of converting guide data, intended for use by vendors, into the unique LSR coordinate systems remained. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Program Management To accomplish these objectives, it was decided to:
Delineate a compilation boundary Create limited priority areas for regions that require more thorough treatment Provide an exact spatial location for landmark type buildings that need highly detailed modeling a means to convert them to LSR could be devised Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Program Management Landmarks: More popular structures are often the landing zone or entry point for VE users, especially new
ones. Making a strong first impression furthers interest in the product, leading to return visits, and hopefully loyal customers. Virtual Earth landmarks are models compiled to an even higher level of detail than general buildings. The locations of such structures are also explicitly flagged for vendors. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Program Management Priority AOIs: Priority areas, which require the
most modeling time as100% of structures are typically compiled, are created. They consist of Downtown cores Medical campuses Sports Facilities Tourist zones Universities Major commercial/retail zones Office Parks
Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION Program Management Compilation Boundary: A building compilation boundary layer is digitized in UTM coordinates using the VE orthomosaic data and basemap data. The boundary, improves vendor efficiency by eliminating the unnecessary setting of stereo models void of desirable features. Jason Setzer Penn State University
MODEL REGISTRATION Layer Conversion To make landmark locations, priority areas, and compilation boundaries useful for vendors they have to be converted in to the arbitrary LSR system in which the 3D models are built. A workflow to do this was put together using ArcMaps Spatial Adjustment tool. It involves using the LSR camera exterior orientations used in building modeling along with the a UTM version of the camera positions obtained from the processing database. The"x"two"y"coordinate sets are"kappa" read in toimage ArcMap as an "z"
event-theme "z" "omega" "phi" "x" "y" "omega" "phi" "kappa" and353.053 used as 1672.488 the basis of a spatial transformation. -14854.8 -1.69954 0.173874 0.018355 3027 373881.2 4087620 1689.848 -1.82975 0.197893 -0.83454
4087395 1689.809 0.558779 2.77848 -6.37274 4087170 1689.743 1.259717 2.605576 11.31451 4086945 1689.716 1.172694 -0.11497 -1.39226 4086720 1689.861 -0.45732 -0.15806 1.434492 UTM Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION UTM to LSR In ArcMap, bundle adjusted camera positions are plotted as event themes. An editing session is started for the desired features (landmark
locations, priority areas, and compilation boundaries) to transform. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION UTM to LSR Displacement links are made from the UTM image coordinates to the synonymous LSR positions. Verticie snapping is enabled on the image event theme nodes to allow for precise selection of points. Jason Setzer Penn State University
MODEL REGISTRATION UTM to LSR Once the Adjust command is executed, layers are transformed to their new positions. An affine-transformation is adequate to accurately translate the UTM features to the LSR coordinate system. Vendors now have guide data to help them in the modeling process. Jason Setzer Penn State University MODEL REGISTRATION
UTM to LSR and back The same layers which are provided as modeling guides to vendors, are also used to verify the correctness and completeness of delivered data. They are used to make sure: Priority areas are completely modeled That all landmark buildings are compiled Excessive compilation of unnecessary data is not submitted. Jason Setzer Penn State University CONCLUSIONS
Resulting Effects In the first year of the Virtual Earth Program, production goals were both aggressive and ambitious. An output of at least 100 cities in the first year was the top-line, non-negotiable goal for the organization. Manual rooftop compilation proved to be THE largest bottle neck of the entire process. From the beginning, the buildings compilation effort was behind the curve. Without the development of TRISURFSHP and the LSR conversion work flow, reaching the 100 city target would not have been accomplished. Jason Setzer Penn State University CONCLUSIONS Resulting Effects
To be certain, many people, processes, and innovations are to be credited with the achieving the 1st year Virtual Earth goals. Among them, stands the advent of geo-spatial registration methods for data in LSR coordinates as a significant part of realizing the VE production objectives. Virtual Earth Production 140 TriSurfShp 120
UTM-LSR 100 80 60 40 20 0 Cities Produced Production Goals Jason Setzer Penn State University LEVERAGING GIS FOR PROJECTING DATA IN VIRTUAL EARTH
Jason Setzer MGIS Candidate http://maps.live.com Mark Gahegan - Advisor Thank You! Jason Setzer Penn State University
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