Grammatical class distinctions in aphasia PhD CSP MSPA

 Grammatical class distinctions in aphasia   PhD CSP MSPA

Grammatical class distinctions in aphasia PhD CSP MSPA 1 , . 2

, , . , . , , (). 3

, . / . 4 ( ) .

(Miceli et al. ,1984; Zingeser & Berndt, 1988, 1990). ). , . . 5 ( )

/ , . . 30). (Berndt et al., 1997; Caramazza & Hillis, 1991; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1998; Miceli et al., 1984; Orpwood & Warrington, 1995; Rapp & Caramazza, 1998; Tranel et al., 20). 0). 1; Tsapkini et al., 20). 0). 2; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). ). , (.. , ), , , , .

6 ( ) , , (Breedin & Martin, 1996; Marshall et al., 1996). , Marshall (RG) (.. ) . .

7 ( ) , . (Caramazza & Shelton, 1998; Hart, Berndt & Caramazza, 1985; Hillis & Caramazza, 1991; Tranel, Damasio & Damasio, 1997; Warrington & Shallice, 1984ref). ).

. 8 ( ) .. (Hart & Gordon, 1992), (Farah & Wallace, 1992; Hart, Berndt & Caramazza, 1985), (Damasio, Gabowski, Tranel, Hichwa & Damasio, 1996; Tranel, Damasio & Damasio, 1997).

(.. , ...) . , , , . (Saf). f). ran & Schwartz, 1994; Warrington & Shallice, 1984) . 9 . 4 . :

/ Broca Wernicke / 10).

Goodglass, Klein, Carey, Jones (1966) , . Broca . ( ) Broca (McCarthy & Warrington, 1988; Myerson & Goodglass, 1972) (Zingeser & Berndt, 1988). 11

4 , , . Broca, (Berndt et al., 1997; Breedin et al., 1998; Breen & Warrington, 1994; Kim & Thompson, 20). 0). 0). ; Manning & Warrington, 1996; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985; Marshall, Pring & Chiat, 1998; Shapiro et al., 20). 0). 0). ; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). ).

12 ; , : (Bates, Chen, Tzeng, Li & Opie, 1991), (Jensen, 20). 0). 0). ), (Bastiaanse, 1991; Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996), (Laine, Kujala, Niemi, & Uusipaikka, 1992), (De Bleser & Kauschke, 20). 0). 2), (Osman-Sagi, 1987),

(Daniele, Guistolisi, Silveri, Colosimo & Gainotti, 1994; Luzzati, Raggi, Zonco, Pistarini, Contardi et al., 20). 0). 2; Miceli, Silveri, Villa & Caramazza, 1984; Miceli, Silveri, Noncentini & Caramazza, 1988; Silveri & Di Betta, 1997) (Tsapkini, Jarema & Kehayia, 20). 0). 2; Kambanaros, 20). 0). 3; 20). 0). 6). 13 ; ( ). (Berndt, Mitchum,

Haendiges, & Sandson, 1997; Caramazza & Hillis, 1991; Daniele et al., 1994; Hillis & Caramazza, 1995; Kohn, Lorch & Pearson, 1989; Manning & Warrington, 1996; Marshall et al, 1998; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985; Williams & Canter, 1987), (Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996), (Kremin, 1994) (Basso, Razzano, Faglioni, Zanobio, 1990). ). 14 / / , .

, (Daniele et al., 1994; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985; Miceli et al., 1988; Silveri & Di Betta, 1997 Shapiro et al., 20). 0). 0). ). 15 , . (Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998). , .

, , . , , , Wernicke, . . 16 (Damasio & Tranel, 1993; Miozzo et al., 1994) (Bastiaanse, 1991; Berndt & Haendiges, 20). 0). 0). ; Caramazza & Hillis, 1991; Miceli et al., 1984; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). ).

17 (Daniele et al., 1994; Ferreira et al., 1997; Glosser & Donof). rio, 20). 0). 1; Luzzatti et al., 20). 0). 2; Miozzo et al., 1994; Tranel et al., 20). 0). 1). .

, , , (Caramazza & Hillis, 1991; Damasio & Tranel, 1993; Miozzo et al., 1994; Manning & Warrington, 1996; Pulvermller, 1999). 18 , (PET), (f). MRI), (ERP), (rTMS) .

(PET) - (Martin, Haxby, Lalonde, Wiggs & Ungerleider, 1995; Perani, Cappa, Schnur, Tettamanti, Collina et al., 1999; Tranel, Damasio & Damasio, 1997). 19 . ,

, , - (Pulvermller, Preissl, Lutzenberger & Birbaumer, 1996; Pulvermller, Lutzenberger & Preissl, 1999; Pulvermller, 20). 0). 1). 20). , . , (rTMS) Shapiro, Pascual-Leone, Mottaghy, Gangitano & Caramazza, (20). 0). 1)

, (PET) Martin et al., (1995), , . 21 , (PET) Broca Wernicke (Hadar, Palti & Hendler, 20). 0). 2).

(f). MRI) (Kable, Lease-Spellmeyer & Chatterjee, 20). 0). 2). 22 , (PET) , (Tyler, Russell, Fadili & Moss, 20). 0). 1; Warburton, Wise, Price, Weiller, Hadar et al., 1996).

. , Wernicke (Hillis, Tuf). f). iash, Wityk & Barker, 20). 0). 2). 23 , / .

(Luzzatti, et al., 20). 0). 2) (Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996; Luzzatti et al., 20). 0). 2; Tsapkini et al., 20). 0). 2). 24 . , (Hadar et

al., 20). 0). 2; Tyler et al., 20). 0). 1; Pulvermller et al., 1999). 25 . : - , , , (Chen & Bates, 1998). 26

- - . - , (Bates et al., 1991; Bates et al., 1998; Breedin et al., 1998; Druks & Shallice, 1996; Ferreira et al., 1997a; Ferreira et al, 1997b; Gainotti et al., 1995; Kim & Thompson, 20). 0). 0). ; Luzzatti et al., 20). 0). 2; Magnie et al., 1999; Marshall et al., 1996; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985; Moss et al., 1998; Shelton, Fouch & Caramazza, 1998; Silveri & Di Betta, 1997; Williams & Canter, 1987; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). ).

, . 27 - .

(Miceli et al., 1984, 1989; Myerson & Goodglass, 1972; Saf). f). ran, 1982; Saf). f). ran, Schwartz & Marin, 1980). ). , (Kim & Thompson, 20). 0). 0). ; Kiss, 20). 0). 0). ; Thompson et al., 1997) (Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998; Caplan & Hanna, 1998; De Blesser, 20). 0). 0). ; Jonkers, 1998; Luzzatti et al., 20). 0). 2). 28

, , , ... (Caramazza & Berndt, 1985). , . , (Shapiro, Shelton & Caramazza, 20). 0). 0). ). 29

, (Bates et al., 1991), (Osman-Sagi, 1987; Tsapkini et al., 20). 0). 1; 20). 0). 2). , Tsapkini (20). 0). 2) , ( ) , . 30).

, . (Breen & Warrington, 1994; Caramazza & Hillis, 1991; Hillis & Caramazza, 1994; Kay & Ellis, 1987; Manning & Warrington, 1996; Marshall et al., 1998; Miceli et al., 1988; Tsapkini et al., 20). 0). 2).

. 31 , , ( ) (Caramazza & Hillis, 1991; Manning & Warrington, 1996; Miceli et al., 1988; Miozzzo, Soardi & Cappa, 1994).

, (Moss, Davies, Jeppeson, McLellan & Tyler, 1998). , , , / (.. ) (.. ). 32

. . 33 , ( ). , Manning and Warrington (1996)

. 34 , , (Zingeser & Berndt, 1988). , Jonkers Bastiaanse (1998) , (connected

speech). , (Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). ). 35 , ( ) .

(Druks & Shallice, 20). 0). 0). ) ( ) , . 36 , () (Caramazza & Hillis, 1991) , (Rapp & Caramazza, 1998) (Berndt & Haendiges, 20). 0). 0). ).

, , , (Rapp & Caramazza, 20). 0). 2). , (Miozzo et al., 1994; Silveri & Di Betta, 1997). 37 (Elicitation Elicitation technique)

(Elicitation Naming to definition) Berndt, Mitchum, Haendiges, & Sandson, 1997; Druks & Shallice, 2000; Marshall, Pring & Chiat, 1998; Marshall, Pring, Chiat & Robson, 1995/6; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990. / (Elicitation Sentence completion/construction) Bastiaanse, 1991; Berndt & Haendiges, 2000; Berndt, Haendiges, Mitchum, Sandson, 1997; Berndt, Mitchum, Haendiges, & Sandson, 1997; Berndt, Haendiges, & Wozniak, 1997; Breedin & Martin, 1996; Breedin et al., 1998; Jensen, 2000; Kohn, Lorch & Pearson, 1989; Manning & Warrington, 1996; Marshall et al., 1998; McCall, Cox, Shelton, Weinrich, 1997; Thompson, Lange, Schneider & Shapiro, 1997. Berndt, Mitchum, Haendiges, & Sandson, 1997; Berndt, Haendiges, & Wozniak, 1997; Bird et al., 2001;

Jensen, 2000; Lu, Crosson, Nadeau, Heilman, Gonzalez-Rothi, Raymer et al., 2002. (Elicitation Naming from a video-taped scene) / Berndt, Mitchum, Haendiges, & Sandson, 1997; Hillis & Caramazza, 1991; Manning & Warrington, 1996; Marshall et al., 1998; Miozzo, Soardi & Cappa, 1994; Pashek, 1998; Renzi & Pellegrino, 1995; Tsapkini, Jarema & Kehayia, 2002. (Elicitation Reading nouns and/or verbs) / Daniele, Giustolisi, Silveri, Colosimo & Gainotti, 1994; Hillis & Caramazza, 1991; Hillis, Tuffiash, & Cramazza, 2002; Jensen, 2000; Miozzo et al., 1994; Rapp & Caramazza, 1998, 2002; Renzi & Pellegrino, 1995. (Elicitation Writing nouns and/or verbs) 38

, (Goodglass, 1993; Kohn et al., 1989). . , -, (

) (Kambanaros, 20). 0). 3). 39 , (Goodglass, 1993; Kohn & Goodglass, 1985; Nickels, 1995). , . , .

40). , . ( ), (, ), ( , , ) .

41 , (Colombo & Burani, 20). 0). 2). , . , .. /-.

42 (Cuetos et al., 20). 0). 2) (Nickels, 1995; Nickels & Howard, 1995). , (Berndt et al., 1997).

, . , - (Hillis & Caramazza, 1995). 43 , (.. , , ). , (Deloche, Hannequin, Dordain, Perrier, Pichard, Quint et al., 1996). ,

. , , , (Hirsh & Ellis, 1994; Hirsh & Funnell, 1995; Feyereisen, Van der Borght & Seron, 1988). , . 44 . (.. ) . , -

, . , , , (Roberts, 20). 0). 1). 45 , .

(Bates & Wulf). eck, 1989) (Bates et al., 1991). , (Bates et al., 1987; Kehayia, Jarema, & Kadzielawa, 1990). ; Slobin, 1991). 46 (Bates et al., 1991; Miceli et al., 1988; Jonkers, 1998; Shapiro et al., 20). 0). 2; Tsapkini et al., 20). 0). 2).

: 1. . 2. ( ) (Kambanaros, 20). 0). 3). , . 47 , (Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998).

, (Bastiaanse, 1991; Berndt et al., 1997; Breedin & Martin, 1996; Jonkers, 1998; Luzzatti et al., 20). 0). 2). , ( ) . 48 ,

. , (Damasio & Tranel, 1993; Daniele, Giustolisi, Silveri, Colosimo & Gainotti, 1994; Grossman, 1998). 49 (Daniele et al., 1994; Goodglass, Klein, Carey & Jones, 1966; Miceli, Silveri, Noncentini & Caramazza, 1988; Silveri & Di Betta, 1997; Zingeser & Berndt, 1988, 1990). ), . 50).

, Broca . Wernicke , , (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1983). 51

: , , , , (Bates et al., 1991; Chen & Bates, 1998; Miceli et al., 1984; 1989, Silveri & Di Betta, 1997). 52 (Laine & Martin, 1996). (Glaser, 1992; Goodglass, 1993; Gordon, 1997; Johnson, Clark

& Paivio, 1996). 1. , , , . - 2. . . 53

3. . . , (Kambanaros, 20). 0). 3). 54 /, , .

- . , (Daniele et al., 1994; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985) . 55 (Caramazza & Hillis, 1991; Caramazza & Miozzo, 1997; Rapp & Caramazza, 1998), ,

( ) . , (Miceli et al., 1984; Williams & Canter, 1987) . 56

, . . , , , . , . Levelt et al. (1999), : lexical concept lemma retrieval word f). orm retrieval articulation 57 ,

. Levelt (1989) / . 58 : , , .

, , , : , , , . 59 , ( modularity principle). modularity principle). . ( )

. 60). ( ) 2 : ) , ) , (Butterworth, 1989; Dell, 1986; Dell & OSeaghda, 1992; Garrett, 1988; Goodglass, 1993; Levelt, 1989; Levelt, Roelof). s & Meyer, 1999; Morton, 1984; Rapp & Caramazza, 1991). 61 62 . ,

(Levelt, 1989). (Levelt, 1989; Levelt, Schrief). ers, Vorberg, Meyer, Pechmann & Havinga, 1991; Levelt, Roelof). s & Meyer, 1999; Roelof). s, 20). 0). 0). ). , / (.. , ). (.. ) (Levelt et al., 1999). 63

(f). ormulator), , ( ) Levelt (1989). (.. ) . (.. ), - , . 64

65 , , ( ) , (Levelt, 1989; Levelt et al., 1999; Roelof). s, 20). 0). 0). ). , - , . ( )

(Levelt, 1989). 66 , ( ) . ( , , ) ( /) (Levelt, 1989; Levelt et al., 1999). 67

Levelt (1989) , () , (/). . / -, , / / . 68

, , - , (Berndt, Mitchum et al., 1997). , (Nickels, 1997). 69

. (Bastiaanse, 1991) (Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). ) (Saf). f). ran, Schwartz & Marin, 1980). ; Saf). f). ran, 1982), / (Caramazza & Berndt, 1985). 70). , (Ellis & Young, 1988; Kay & Ellis, 1987).

. 71 , , . , , (Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998; Berndt, Mitchum, Haendiges & Sanderson, 1997; Berndt, Haendiges,

Burton & Mitchum, 20). 0). 2; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996; Kohn et al., 1989; Luzzatti et al., 20). 0). 2; Williams & Canter, 1987). 72 , (Bastiaanse, 1991; Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998; Breedin, Boronat, Saf). f). ran & Shipley, 1999; Breedin & Martin, 1996; Breedin, Saf). f). ran & Schwartz, 1998; Druks & Shallice, 20). 0). 0). ; Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996; Kemmerer & Tranel, 20). 0). 0). ) / , , . 73

. - , .. , , , , . , (Damasio & Tranel, 1993; Gainotti et al., 1995). () - ,

. 74 , . (Huttenlocher & Lui, 1979; Kersten & Billman, 1997; Miller & Fellbaum, 1991). ,

, . 75 , (Earles & Kersten, 20). 0). 0). ). (Gentner, 1981) , (Choi & Bowerman, 1991).

76 , , . , , .

, (.. ). 77 , 60). (Earles & Kersten, 20). 0). 0). ; Earles & Kersten, Turner & McMullen, 1999), . 78

, (Lof). tus & Palmer, 1974). , . 79

, (Gentner, 1981; Kersten, 1998). modularity principle). . . 80).

. , (.. ) (.. ). / /, (Berndt, Haendiges et al., 1997; Berndt, Mitchum et al., 1997; Damasio & Tranel, 1993; Daniele et al., 1994; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985; Silveri & Di Betta, 1997). / Daniele et al., 1994; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985; Silveri & Di Betta, 1997) .

81 , (Kohn et al., 1989; Williams & Canter, 1987) . , / , (Berndt et al., 1997).

82 (Daniele et al., 1994; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985). 83

/. , (Breedin et al., 1998, Marshall et al., 1996; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985). 84 (Imageability).

(Bird et al., 20). 0). 0). , Luzzatti et al., 20). 0). 2) . , , , . (Bird et al., 20). 0). 0). ; Luzzatti et al., 20). 0). 2; Marshall, Chiat, Robson & Pring, 1995/6, Berndt, Haendiges, Burton, & Mitchum, 20). 0). 2; Caramazza & Shapiro, 20). 0). 2). 85

, , Bird et al. (20). 0). 0). ), . . , Kemmerer Tranel (20). 0). 0). ) (Fiez & Tranel 1997) (.. ) (.. ).

, (Franklin, Howard & Patterson, 1995; Nickels, 1995; Nickels & Howard, 1995). 86 , (Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, Chiat, et al., 1996; Marshall, Pring, Chiat & Robson, 1996). Bird et al. (Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, 2000)

. , , (Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, ) . , Bird (Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, 2000) . , . 87

Bird et al. (20). 0). 0). ) , (Berndt et al., 20). 0). 2; Druks, 20). 0). 2; Shapiro & Caramazza, 20). 0). 1). , / . 88

, . Luzzatti (20). 0). 2): , (. 442). ------ . . 89

: , . , (Fietz & Tranel, 1997). 90).

: , . , . . , (. ) (Jackendof). f). , 1990). ; Nagy & Gentner, 1990). ; Talmy, 1988) . . 91

: (Berndt & Haendiges, 20). 0). 0). ; Breedin & Martin, 1996; Kemmerer & Tranel, 20). 0). 0). ). , , , (Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996, 1998). (Breedin et al., 1998) () / () .

92 : , . - - - . (Breedin et al., 1999; Jonkers &

Bastiaanse, 1996; Kremin, 1994; Kemmerer & Tranel, 20). 0). 0). ). 93 : , , / (Buxbaum & Saf). f). ran, 1998; Damasio et al., 1996; Laiacona & Capitani, 20). 0). 1). / .

- (. , ) , (Ulmann et al., 1997) , ( ) . 94 (Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, Instrumentality) () . .

() (Bastiaanse, 1991; Breedin et al., 1998, 1999; Druks & Shallice, 20). 0). 0). ; Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse 1996, 1998; Kemmerer & Tranel 20). 0). 0). ). (Bastiaanse, 1991; Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse 1996, 1998) (Breedin et al., 1998, 1999; Druks & Shallice, 20). 0). 0). ; Kemmerer & Tranel 20). 0). 0). ). , ( ) (Kambanaros, 20). 0). 3, 20). 0). 6). 95 (Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, Instrumentality)

, , , ... 2 : () () . + . 96 () . . +

() 1. . . 2. . . 3. . . 97 ( ) .

, (.. ). (Jonkers, 1998). 98 . , . 99

, , , . .. (McKenna & Parry, 1994). , , .. , (Lambon Ralph, Howard, Nightingale & Ellis, 1998). , . Mandler (1996) 14 , 16 , 2 . 10). 0).

(Buxbaum & Saf). f). ran, 1998; Damasio et al., 1996; Ferreira, Giusiano & Poncet, 1997; Laiacona & Capitani, 20). 0). 1; Warrington & McCarthy, 1987). , (Ferreira et al., 1997). , (Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996). 10). 1

/ . (Bird et al., 20). 0). 0). ; Farah & McClelland, 1991; Lambon Ralph et al., 1998; Warrington & Shallice, 1984). , (McKenna & Parry, 1994). , (Gainotti, 20). 0). 0). ) , (Buxbaum & Saf). f). ran, 1998). 10). 2 , ,

. (Martin, Whigs, Ungerleider & Haxby; 1996; Perani, Cappa, Bettinardi, Bressi, Gorno-Tempini, et al., 1995), (Chao & Martin, 20). 0). 0). ; Grabowski, Damasio & Damasio, 1996; Graf). ton, Fadiga, Arbib, Rizzolatti, 1997), (Chao & Martin, 20). 0). 0). ) (Chao, Haxby & Martin, 1999; Damasio, Grabowski, Tranel, Hichwa, & Damasio, 1996). , ( ) (Damasio et al., 1996; Martin et al., 1996). 10). 3 ,

, / (Devlin, Gonnerman, Anderson & Seidenberg, 20). 0). 2). , Gerlach, Law Paulson (20). 0). 2) . , , / . 10). 4 , ,

. . 10). 5 , , - (Breedin et al., 1994; Sacchett & Humphries, 1992; Warrington & McCarthy, 1983).

10). 6 , Ulman (1999) , . , , ( ) . . , , .

10). 7 Broca (Bastiaanse, 1991; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996; Jonkers, 1998) (Bastiaanse, 1991; Bastiaanse & Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996; Jonkers, 1998; Kambanaros, 20). 0). 3) , . . 10). 8

3 . , (Berndt et al., 1997; Miceli et al., 1984; Silveri & Di Betta, 1997; Daniele et al., 1994; Damasio & Tranel, 1993; McCarthy & Warrington, 1985; Zingeser & Berndt, 1988, 1990). ). , (Bastiaanse, Edwards & Kiss, 1996; Edwards, 20). 0). 2; Edwards & Bastiaanse, 1998; Goodglass, Christiansen & Gallagher, 1993; Le Dorze & Nespoulous, 1989; Martin & Blossom-Stach, 1986; McCann & Edwards, 20). 0). 2). , (Bastiaanse, 1991; Breedin & Martin, 1994; Breedin et al., 1998, 1999; Jonkers, 1998; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996, 1998; Kemmerer & Tranel, 20). 0). 0). ). 10). 9 ,

( , .. ). . Broca. 110). (Bastiaanse, 1991; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996, Jonkers, 1998).

. , . 111 , Kemmerer Tranel (20). 0). 0). ), , . , , . ,

. , . , . . 112 , . , Druks (20). 0). 2) , -, , , : ..

/ / , . . Druks . 113 , . , / . PET (Damasio, Grabowski, Tranel, Ponto, Hichwa, Damasio, 20). 0). 1)

. . 114 . , 2 -. Damasio ( ) ( ) .

115 , - Ferretti, McRae, Hatherall (20). 0). 1) - . , painted (=), (brush) . 116 ,

( \) . . , (Breedin et.al., 1998, 1999). (.. ) , . 117 , Jonkers (1998) .

spreading activation theory (Dell, 1986). H Ferretti et.al. (20). 0). 1), . 118 , (Allport,1985; Marshall et. al., 1996) . , . , , ( Broca) , . ,

. . 119 (Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, Name Relation) 2 : - . , (-) , . ( 2,1 /).

120). + + +

2.1 . (Bird et al., 2000; Marshall, Kambanaros, 2003)) 121 (1990). ) ( ) . , ( ) (economy principle) (Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1998) , . 122

Bastiaanse (1991) . , , 2 Broca 2 . 2 Broca 1 . 2 . Bastiaanse Levelt (1989). (-) 1 2 /: . Broca 2 /, -, . (20). ). 123

, / , . , ( ) ( ). , (namely semantic paraphasias). , Broca - , . 124

Caramazza Hillis (1991) , 2 (HW SJD). ( ) , .. a brush, to brush ( ). , () . Caramazza Hillis (1991) , HW / , SJD . , . 125

Kremin (1994), , /. , . (.. modularity principle). lire modularity principle). livre = modularity principle). modularity principle). ) . Kremin, ( ) . , . 126 Jonkers (1998) 14 Broca 17 ,

(40). , ). . 127 Breedin (1999) . . . ,

. , , . Kemmerer Tranel (20). 0). 0). ) 9 . , . 128 (Bastiaasnse, 1991) (Caramazza & Hillis, 1991; Jonkers, 1998), (Breedin et al., 1999; Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1996; Kemmerer & Tranel, 20). 0). 0). ). (Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1998). Jonkers

Bastiaanse (1998) Kemmerer Tranel (20). 0). 0). ), / (Hillis & Caramazza, 1991, 1995). , - . Jonkers Bastiaanse (1998) : 129 (. 254). 130).

, . , - (instrumental verbs /) .. , (non instrumental verbs) .. , (Kambanaros, 20). 0). 3). , ( ) () ( ) .. ,

. 131 (Holton, et al., 1997; Kehayia, 1990). ). , , , , , , , , . , . .

, - ( ) , . 132 - - + + + + +

+ + 133 Kehayia (1990). ) : 1: , . : () (+..). 2: , (.. , ,

). 134 , Kehayia (1990). ) (storage hypothesis) . , , (.. ) . , . , , (Kehayia, 1990). ; Kehayia & Jarema, 1991; Jarema & Kehayia, 1992).

135

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