An Exploratory Study of the Five Cs Model

An Exploratory Study of the Five Cs Model

An Exploratory Study of the Five Cs Model of Positive Youth Development Among Indiana 4-H Youth Abby M. Robinson Masters Candidate April 12, 2011 Why Positive Youth Development? Until the mid-90s, youth were viewed as problems. Approach viewing adolescents as resources of the community, rather than problems that must fixed (Damon, 2004). Process which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through a series of coordinated activities and experiences (Collins, Hill, & Miranda, 2008). 2 What is Positive Youth Development?

Research aimed at finding ways to improve adolescent development and to aid students so that they may reach their full potential (Zarrett & Lerner, 2008). Focus is on the characteristics of development that lead to positive rather than negative youth outcomes (Heck & Subramaniam, 2009). 3 Five Cs of Positive Youth Development PYD concept is built from a framework known as the 5 Cs of Positive Youth Development (Lerner, Lerner, & Phelps, 2009). Five Cs Framework Competence Confidence Connection Character Caring

4 4-H Youth Development Program Largest youth serving organization in the world (Seevers et al., 2007). Goals Learning Development of life-skills Transformation of youth into productive members of society 40 Developmental Assets External Internal Eight Critical Elements of PYD Service to others; self-determination, decision making, and goal setting; positive connections with the future

5 Indiana 4-H Program 2010 Indiana 4-H Report 210,467 youth served 2,216 organized 4-H Clubs 14,729 adult volunteers 4-H Programming Caring adults Safe environment Opportunities to master skills and content 6 Need for Study 4-H youth development programs have beneficial effects on youth by positively affecting development and therefore positively affecting their adulthood (Boyd, Herring, & Briers, 1992).

In the push for accountability, providing evidence of the effectiveness of youth development programs such as 4-H is essential (Boyd et al., 1992). 7 Literature Review 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development First study to utilize the newly developed measures for PYD using the Five Cs Framework Longitudinal design Began in 2002 with fifth grade students Gathered data from student and parent questionnaires and U.S. Census data Reports contain data from youth who completed two or more years of the study

4-H Study of Positive Youth Development Predicting Outcomes Accurately (Jelicic et al., 2007) Valid PYD Measurement (Phelps et al., 2009) Waves 1-5 (Lerner et al., 2008; Lerner et al., 2010) 8 Literature Review Bossaer (2009) conducted the first thesis study examining elements of Lerner et als. (2005) PYD measures. Grades eight thru 10 from 22 counties across the State of Indiana.

Active 4-H members showed higher levels of community contribution than non-4-H members. Active 4-H members reported significantly lower levels of risky behaviors (e.g., depression, tobacco and drug use, delinquent behaviors and bullying) than youth who reported limited or no 4-H experience. 9 Literature Review Few studies have used Lerner et als. (2005) measures of PYD. Limited use of the short-form version of the Positive Youth Development Student Questionnaire (Lerner, Lerner, Almerigi, Theokas, Phelps, Gestsdottir, 2008). Few studies, including theses and dissertations, have been conducted with Lerner et al.s (2005) PYD measure focusing on high school students. To date, no cross-sectional studies have been conducted measuring the Five Cs among students in the 4-H youth development program. 10

Developmental Systems Theory Developmental Systems Theory is a contemporary human development theory useful in studies of adolescent development (Kiely, 2010). Developmental Contextualism, a core feature of DST, represents the mutually influential relations between an individual and their contextual factors (Lerner and Miller, 1993). 11 Developmental Systems Theory Ecological Developmental Characteristics Strengths of Adolescents Positive Youth Development (PYD) Contribution Risk/Problem Behaviors 12 The DST Model Ecological

Developmental Characteristics Individuals Institutions Youth-Adult Partnerships Access Contribution Competence Confidence Positive Youth Development Selection Optimization Compensation Character Caring Connection

Strengths of Adolescents Risk/Problem Behaviors 13 Purpose To explore the levels of Positive Youth Development among Indiana 4-H members. 14 Research Objectives 1. Describe the levels of positive youth development (PYD) as measured by the Five Cs between 4-H and non-4-H members. 2. Describe differences in positive youth development as measured by the Five Cs between 4-H and non-4-H members. 3. Describe the relationships between positive youth development as measured by the Five Cs and selected demographic characteristics (age,

gender, grade and 4-H membership). 15 Methods and Procedures Exploratory descriptive survey design Extension Educators in every county in Indiana were asked to participate in the study. Convenience sample of youth contacted by an Extension Educator (N=453). Short-form version of the Positive Youth Development Student Questionnaire (Lerner et al., 2008). 16 Participating Indiana Counties 17

Participants Category Response f % Gender Female Male 255 193 56.9 % 43.1% Grade Upperclassmen

Lowerclassmen 154 290 34.7% 65.3% Asian, Asian American or Pacific Islander Black or African American Hispanic or Latino/a White, Caucasian; not Hispanic American Indian/ Native American Multiethnic or multiracial 1 6 5 393 11 25 .2% 1.4%

1.1% 89.1% 2.5% 5.7% 4-H Member Non-4-H Member 200 253 44.2% 55.8% Ethnicity 4-H Membership 18 Data Analysis Research Objectives 1. Describe the levels of positive youth development

(PYD) as measured by the Five Cs between 4-H and non-4-H members. 2. Describe differences in positive youth development as measured by the Five Cs between 4-H and non-4-H members. 3. Describe the relationships between positive youth development as measured by the Five Cs and selected demographic characteristics: age, gender, grade and 4-H membership. Variables Independent Dependent 4-H program Confidence participation Competence (4-H/non-4-H)

Connection Caring Character 4-H program Confidence participation Competence (4-H/non-4-H) Connection Caring Character Gender Confidence Competence Connection Caring Character Scale of Measurement Interval Statistical Analysis Means, Standard

Deviations, Frequencies, Percentages Interval Independent t-test Nominal Pearsons Correlation Coefficient Interval 19 Findings Research Objective 1 Five Cs Competenc e Confidence Connection

Character Caring Total PYD 4-H Non-4-H Differenc Participant Participant e s s 57.67 55.55 +2.12 68.31 70.74 61.31 65.26 +7.00

+5.48 73.78 76.34 69.81 68.43 69.39 64.42 +5.35 +6.95 +5.39 20 Findings Research Objective 2 Confidence 4-H Participant Non-4-H Participant N

M SD t d 168 68.55 15.71 -4.47** .48 215 61.09 16.81 Connection 4-H Participant Non-4-H Participant N M SD t d 168 71.06 15.29 -3.51** .36 215 65.28 16.86 Character 4-H Participant

Non-4-H Participant N M 168 74.07 SD t d 12.54 -3.49** .36 215 69.1 14.48 21 Findings Caring 4-H Participant Non-4-H Participant

N M SD t d 168 77.73 15.62 -3.66** .38 215 71.10 18.95 Total PYD 4-H Participant Non-4-H Participant N M SD t d 168 69.42 9.68 -5.11** .48 215 64.42 10.93 22

Findings Research Objective 3 Pearson correlations were used to describe the relationships between total positive youth development, each of the Five Cs and selected characteristics. Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. Total Confidence -- 2. Total Competence .44**

-- 3. Total Connection .48** .23** -- 4. Total Character .30** .17** .51** -- 5. Total Caring .18**

.13** .46** .64** -- 6. Total PYD .69** .52** .78** .74** .72** -- .06

.01 .14** .14** .41** .31** -- .21** .09 .19** .19** .19** .25**

.18** 7. Gender 8. 4-H Participation -- * P < .05; ** p < .01 23 Implications for Practice 4-H/Youth Development Educators from the participating counties in this study could utilize the findings as possible evidence of the contribution that the 4-H program makes in the lives of young people. Findings could be used as evidence that the 4-H program is providing an opportunity for youth to become engaged in youth development activities and experiences which lead to positive youth outcomes. 24

Implications for Practice Additional research is necessary to ensure that 4H programming is indeed making an impact that is both positive and long-term which will help to make the case that 4-H youth development programs are worth sustaining. Because individuals at the local, state, and federal levels of government will ultimately decide whether or not to fund youth development programs such as 4-H, it is critical that they be made aware of the impacts of Extension programming. 25 Recommendations for Future Research Future studies would be strengthened by gathering data from a random sample, rather than a convenience sample, thus enhancing generalizability. Future research should ascertain a more accurate measure of the duration, frequency, and intensity of 4-H participation. 26

Recommendations for Future Research Future research would benefit from collecting data involving a more diverse sample among both 4-H and non-4-H participants. Future research should include items that assess Contribution and risk/problem behaviors, key components of Developmental Systems Theory, which will then lend to findings and conclusions that can be better linked to DST. 27 Questions 28 Thank You! 29

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