Constraints on Quantum Gravity Hirosi Ooguri Caltech and Kavli IPMU EPS-HEP Conference, 15 July 2019 1 It is often said that string theory predicts the vast landscape of vacua and that any effective field theory can be realized somewhere in the landscape. In particular, it accommodates de Sitter vacua with a wide range of values of dark energy.

2 Or, does it? 3 Gravity is different 4

Swampland Question Given an effective theory of gravity, how one can judge whether it is realized as a low energy approximation to a consistent quantum theory with ultraviolet completion, such as string theory? Vafa: hep-th/0509212; Vafa + HO: hep-th/0605264

5 6 No global symmetry proof of concept of the Swampland arXiv:1810.05337 (5 pages announcement) arXiv:1810.05338 (175 page complete proof)

Proven in the context of AdS/CFT 7 No global symmetry For over 50 years, many theorists have argued that a consistent quantum theory of gravity cannot have global symmetry.

The standard argument makes use of the Hawking radiation and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula. 8 No global symmetry Our new proof makes use of the recently discovered relation

between the holography of quantum gravity and quantum error correcting codes in quantum information theory. Almheiri, Dong, Harlow: 1411.7041 Harlow: 1607.03901 9 No global symmetry Generalized Noether Theorem:

For a region R of a Cauchy surface, we can define a unitary operator U(g, R) for every element of the symmetry group G. When R is a union of disjoint subregions, this unitary operator can be expressed as a product of operators associated to each region: This is obvious for continuous symmetry with Noether current, but this theorem holds for discrete symmetry also. 10

No global symmetry If a gravitational theory has global symmetry, there must be a bulk local operator that transforms faithfully into another local operator. Symmetry generator, x commute with the local operator

at x in the bulk. Contradiction 11 No global symmetry Assuming that our theorem holds in the flat spacetime limit, the B - L symmetry of the Standard Model of Particle Physics

must be violated and the proton must decay. We have also proven the completeness hypothesis which says that all possible charges for long range gauge symmetry must be realized. Assuming this completeness theorem holds in the flat spacetime limit, it predicts magnetic monopoles. 12

So far, I have presented the theorems I can prove. Now, we are entering the territory of conjectures. 13 14

Weak Gravity Conjecture 15 Our no global symmetry theorem states that any symmetry in quantum gravity is either broken or gauged. How is global symmetry broken/gauged? Our completeness theorem states that every finite dimensional

unitary representation of gauge symmetry must appear. Can we bound the mass of the lightest charged particle? The weak gravity conjecture attempts to quantify these. 16 Weak Gravity Conjecture In any low energy theory described by the

Einstein gravity + Maxwell field + finite number of matters, if it has an UV completion as a consistent quantum theory, there must be a particle with charge Q and mass m, such that: Arkani-Hamed, Motl, Nicolis, Vafa: hep-th/0601001 17

Weak Gravity Conjecture Motivated by: 1. Black Hole Physics 2. True in all known constructions from string theory 3. Connection to the Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis

18 Weak Gravity Conjecture What if ? Vafa + H.O.: 1610.1533 It implies that anti-de Sitter space is unstable

without supersymmetry. It rules our certain types and masses of the neutrinos in the Standard Model. 4 (neutrino mass) < (dark energy) Ibanez, Martin-Lozano, Valenzuela: 1706.05392,1707.05811; Hamada, Shiu: 1707.06326; Gonzalo, Herraez, Ibanez: 1803.08455
19 20 Distance Conjecture 21 Our proof of the no global symmetry theorem

works for spontaneously broken global symmetry. In particular, shift symmetry of a scalar field, often invoked in inflation models, must be broken. How is the shift symmetry broken? The distance conjecture attempts to quantify this. 22

Distance Conjecture String theory has no continuous free parameters. All parameters can vary locally they are expectation values of scalar fields. The distance conjecture is about properties of the moduli space of such scalar fields, with the metric defined by their kinetic terms. Vafa + HO: hep-th/0605264 23

Distance Conjecture 1. Moduli space is non-compact. Pick any point, one can go infinite distance away from it. 2. Long distance excursion over the moduli space generates a tower of new particles with exponentially small masses. 3. The low energy effective theory defined at the original point breaks down because of the new light degrees of freedom. Vafa + HO: hep-th/0605264

24 Distance Conjecture 1. True in all known constructions in string theory (numerous non-trivial tests with Calabi-Yau compactifications) 2. Connection to Trans-Planckian Censorship. 3. Connection to Weak Gravity Conjecture 4. False for non-gravitational systems 5. gives a universal upper-bound on the inflation excursion.

25 De Sitter Conjecture Low energy effective theory of string theory contains several scalar fields. Can they be all stabilized and produce a positive cosmological constant? Dine-Seiberg Problem (1985) The expectation value of the dilaton determines the string coupling constant. A perturbatively generated potential cannot stabilize the dilaton.

it is (almost) impossible to demonstrate existence of meta-stable de Sitter vacua in the perturbative expansion in the string coupling. The race track mechanism could in principle evade the problem, but it has been difficult to implement this idea in top-down constructions. 26 De Sitter Conjecture

generalizes the Dine-Seiberg problem to any direction in the moduli space Obied, Spodyneiko, Vafa + H.O., arXiv:1806.08362. Palti, Shiu, Vafa + H.O., arXiv: 1810.05506. Suppose you found a positive meta-stable point in the potential. If the Hessian eigenvalues of the potential are bounded below by a minus of the potential, an accelerating universe with an apparent horizon is allowed. The Bousso bound dictates that the entropy inside of the apparent horizon is bounded by its area, which scales as an negative power of V. On the other hand, the parametric control means that the meta-stable point is in

one of the asymptotic region of the moduli space, where according to the distance conjecture, infinite towers of light particles emerge and generate a large entropy. Contradiction 27 De Sitter Conjecture generalizes the Dine-Seiberg problem to any direction in the moduli space

Obied, Spodyneiko, Vafa + H.O., arXiv:1806.08362. Palti, Shiu, Vafa + H.O., arXiv: 1810.05506. In any asymptotic direction in the moduli space, the potential V for scalar fields must satisfy: or 28

The distance conjecture and the de Sitter conjecture do not exclude the inflation scenario, but they can put non-trivial constraints on inflation models. Distance Conjecture Scalisi, Valenzuela: 1812.07558 De Sitter Conjecture

Chiang, Leedom, Murayama: 1811.01987 29 JAXA has approved the launch of the LiteBIRD satellite in 8 years to perform all-sky CMB polarization survey and to test cosmic inflation (single-field large-variation slow-role models). 30

LiteBIRD provides an unprecedented opportunity for String Theory to be falsified. 31