RACE Understanding Human Variation & Adaptation RACE 1.

RACE Understanding Human Variation & Adaptation RACE 1.

RACE Understanding Human Variation & Adaptation RACE 1. CULTURAL CONSTRUCTION No biological basis, although there is often an assumed biological commonality such as shared genes or blood Race categories change over time and vary from place to place

2. GENETIC EVIDENCE Proves that there are more differences within so-called races than between them RACE (cont.) 3. PHENOTYPE (physical expression of genes) Many societies define race by phenotype, such as: skin color, hair form, facial features, eye color Butthe lines of distinction are not

clear The MEANING of the phenotypic features is culturally constructed Putting Cultural Ideas into Practice PREJUDICE Devaluing a group because of assumed behavior, values, capabilities, etc. DISCRIMINATION Policies and practices that harm a group and its members

RACISM Discrimination against a group assumed to have biological commonality Skin Color Adaptation No 2 people actually have true black, white, red, or yellow skin-- commonly used terms that do not reflect biological reality Skin color is due primarily to the presence of a pigment called melanin Individuals differ in the number and size of melanin particles. In lighter skin, color is also affected by red cells in blood flowing close to

Skin Color Adaptation Melanin acts as a protective biological shield against ultraviolet radiation. Helps to prevent sunburn damage that could lead to melanoma --a cancer of the skin. Melanoma is a serious threat to life. In the US, approximately 44,200 people get this disease every year, about 7,300 people die from it. Those at highest risk are European Genetic Variation

Genetic variation within races is greater than genetic variation between races 90% of human genetic variation corresponds to traits within a given race, such as: height, weight, and protein types 10% of human genetic variation accounts for the identifiable racial Craniometry The unilinear scale of human races & lower relatives (Nott and Gliddon, 1968)

The chimpanzee skull is falsely inflated, & the Negro jaw is extended, to give the impression that blacks might even rank lower than the apes (Gould, 1977, in The Racial Economy of Science) Apollo Creole

Negro Chimp Craniometr y An unsubtle attempt to suggest strong affinity between blacks and gorillas. From Nott & Gliddon, 1854. Their caption: The palpable analogies and dissmilitudes between an inferior type of

mankind and a superior type of monkey require no comment. (Gould, 1977, in The Racial Economy of Science) Racial Variation Race is NOT a scientific term: Social construction Arbitrariness of classification How the races are classified varies from

place to place, person to person More racial variation within "racial" groups than between them Abuse of the concept

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