Decide if True OR False AND Explain WHY: 1. All cultures are the same. 2. Cultural practices are only dictated by wealthy societies 3. Sociologists consider western culture superior to all other cultures. All cultures are the same. True: All countries consist of the same basic elements, such as religion, housing and family.
False: Societies have created many different cultures in which language, values, beliefs, and practices vary a great deal. Cultural practices are only dictated by wealthy societies True: Wealthy societies produce most of the culture and entertainment that is popular
around the world and thereby dictate many cultural practices. False: Each society dictates its own cultural practices. Sociologists consider western culture superior to all other cultures. True: Western culture is superior because it is more technologically
advanced and provides a better quality of life. False: Cultures cannot be ranked and should be considered on their own merits. CHAPTER 2 Cultural Diversity Section 1:The Meaning of Culture
Section 2:Cultural Variation Objectives: 1. Define the meaning of the term culture and explain how material culture and nonmaterial culture differ. 2.
Identify and describe the basic components of culture. What is Culture??? Culture: consists of all the shared products of human groups. Material culture: physical objects created by human groups. EX: cars,
books, clothing, computers. Nonmaterial culture: abstract human creations, such as language, ideas, beliefs, rules, skills, family patterns, work practices, and political and economic systems. Difference between culture and society: Society:
a group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unity. Society consists of people, and culture consists of material and nonmaterial products that people create. SECTION 1
The Meaning of Culture Question: How do material culture and nonmaterial culture differ? SECTION 1 The Meaning of Culture
CULTURE all the shared products of human groups Material Culture Non material Culture physical objects that people create and use
abstract human creations Examples Examples automobiles, books, buildings, clothing, computers, and cooking beliefs, family patterns, ideas,
language, political and economic systems, and rules Nonverbal Cross-Cultural Communication It is estimated that 90% of what we communicate, we say without words!
The components of culture: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Technology Symbols
Language Values Norms Technology Knowledge and tools people use for practical purposes. Sociologists interested in skills AND acceptable behaviors when
using material culture. Symbols Anything that represents something else. Although symbols vary, all cultures communicate symbolically.
Language: The organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system. Focus/Review Describe a value of yours that differs
from your friends and/or family. Describe how your value is different and comment on any problems this has caused you. American Tongues A film about the way we talk. 40
minutes. Please follow along with the video by completing the handout provided!! All questions are in order of video. Values: Shared
beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable. EX: the value of respecting others and being concerned for human life. Do you share the SAME values as your friends? As I read EACH statement, decide which label
you agree with: 1. Go to the sign that reflects how you feel about the statement. Agree, Disagree, Unsure 2. 3.
I will give you a few minutes to discuss your views with each other.decide on ONE spokesperson to summarize your views. Keep tally of the number of friends in EACH group! Statement #1: Although we should not be unnecessarily cruel to animals, they were put on earth to serve
the needs of human beings. Agree, Disagree, Unsure Statement #2: The death penalty should be abolished Agree, Somewhat Agree, Disagree, Unsure Statement #3: Men and women are not politically or intellectually equal because
they are biologically different. Agree, Disagree, Unsure Statement #4: There is too much violence and sex in the media, especially on television. Agree, Disagree, Unsure Statement #5:
Millenials are, generally, an awful generation. Agree, Disagree, Unsure Question to Consider: Do you and your friends have the same values??? Norms: Shared
rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations. EX: respect for the American flag Norms are expectations for behavior, NOT actual behavior. EX: Not all people pay their bills.
As simple as cover your mouth when you sneeze to complex such as do not kill a human being. Homework Ch 2 section 1 reading
Describe cultural trait, cultural complexes, and cultural patterns. Give 2 original (not in book or given by teacher) examples of each Norms are also applied selectively.
EX: Taking someones life is different for police officers and military. Two Types of Norms: 1. Folkways 2. Mores (MOR-ayz)
Folkways: Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significance attached to them. EX: Do not place a knife in your mouth. Shake hands when introduced. Do your homework
Nonconformity does NOT endanger the well-being or stability of society. Mores: Norms that have a GREAT moral significance attached to them. Violation of rules endangers societys
well-being. EX: murder, fraud, dishonesty Laws: Written rules of conduct enacted and enforced by the government. Essential
for social stability when violating mores. Features of culture divided into 3 levels Traits 2. Complexes 3. Patterns
1. Culture Traits: Simplest level An individual tool, act, or belief that is related to a particular situation or need. EX: Using knives, spoons, forks
Saying hi to friend Culture Complexes: Cluster of interrelated cultural traits. EX: Football Football, helmets, pads, sideline benches, running, blocking, tackling, rules, penalties.
Culture Patterns: The combination of a number of culture complexes into an interrelated whole. EX: Baseball, basketball, football, soccer, etccombine to form the American athletic pattern. End of Chapter 2:
Section 1 24 minute culture video Chapter 2: Section 2 Cultural Variation Objectives: Describe
cultural universals and explain why they exist. Explain what the terms ethnocentrism and cultural relativism mean. Identify factors that account for variations among and within cultures. What do we have in
common?? Culture universals: Common features that are found in all human cultures. Anthropologist George Murdock developed a list of general traits that are common to ALL cultures (more than 65 cultural universals): Cooking, dancing, family, feasting, forms of greeting, funeral ceremonies, gift giving, housing, language, medicine,
music, myths and folklore, religions, sports, and toolmaking. What do you think? What might be the reason for some cultural differences between Canada and the United States? Variation Among Societies: Anthropologist
Margaret Mead studied the differences in culture between the Arapesh and the Mundugumor. Lived 100 miles apart, but VERY different cultures.
The Arapesh: Gentle, nonaggressive, receptive, trusting, and warm people. Live in close-knit villages. Children
are discouraged from displaying any aggression towards others. The Arapesh: Arranged marriages Most marriages consist of one husband and one wife
However, some men have two wives. The Mundugumor: Aggressive!! Men and women competitive, jealous, and violent. Enjoy fighting Great hostility between fathers and sons
Sisters and mothers as well The Mundugumor: The more wives, then the more power and wealth. (810 wives) The Mundugumor: Children
tend to push parents apart. Father wants daughter to trade for another wife. The Mundugumor: Infants
are carried in rigid basket that gives no contact with mother!! Left hanging in basket in house when mother works outdoors. Not picked up or comforted!
Rules for Mundugumor Children: 1. 2. 3. Do not wander out of sight Do not cling to our mother Do not go to the houses of your fathers other wives.
1. Violators punished Comparing the Two Societies: Mead believed that temperament is mainly the result of culture rather than biology. EX: Religion, Values, beliefs
SECTION 2 Cultural Variation Question: What do the terms ethnocentrism and cultural relativism mean? SECTION 2
Cultural Variation Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism the tendency to view ones own culture and group as superior to other different cultures
belief that a culture should be judged by its own standards rather than by those of another culture Example Example Variation within Societies:
Subculture: group with its own unique values, norms, and behaviors that exists within a larger culture. EX: Chinatown, military, etc. More examples: Cultural Groups
Communities that live separate/secret lives? Youth subcultures Counterculture:
A subculture where a group rejects the major values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns. EX: Hippie movement in 1960s. Others? CHAPTER 2 Chapter Wrap-Up 1. List five examples of material culture and five examples
of nonmaterial culture. 2. What is language, and why is it such an important part of culture? 3. How do folkways, mores, and laws differ? List three examples of each type of norm. 4. How do cultural traits, cultural complexes, and cultural patterns differ? 5. How did Margaret Mead contribute to the study of cultures? 6. What is ethnocentrism? How does it differ from cultural relativism?
7. How are subcultures and countercultures related?
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