3/27 Notes Cultural Geography Quiz 3: End of Class Pick up all old work First---finishing up last lecture Spanish & Mexican SW 1 More Spanish Explorers of the Southwest Padre Eusebio Francisco Kino 1692-1711 Reached
Tucson Jesuit Technology Livestock Agriculture What did he see? 2 Spanish Presidios Military Forts Protection Indian Raiding Livestock (cattle,
horses) abundant Farming nearby Tucson, Tubac, El Paso Ended in 1821. 3 Spanish Missions San Xavier del Bac (White Dove of the Desert) Kino 1692 1770s rebuilt by Franciscans
Just SW of Tucson Still active church Still active farming Tumaccori. http://www.smrc-missiontours.com/ 4 ***Big Pont*** European Native American Exchange
Mexican Independence 1821 Mexican-American War 1846 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Gadsden Purchase1854******* 1848 7 Todays Topics Athapaskans in the Southwest Includes Navajo and Apache Where they came from, when
Early life ways, history, modern times Focus on environment interactions Leave most of the human issues for other courses 8 Athapaskans in 1900 How to Connect North and
South? Navajo Apache Where and When Linguistically Athapaskan (Navajo and Apache) Migration started ~1000-1500 years ago
Glottochronolog y Crossed many environments 10 Glottochronology Study of language divergence Language starts with a basic vocabulary People, languages split apart Words replaced at a constant rate?? With time, a language splits into two If replacement rate is known, date of common language can be
determined (not precise dates) Ex: Lune (L.) = Monday Fr.: Lundi, Sp. = Lunes 11 White River Ash East lobe: 1250 bp 1000 km long, thick May have triggered dispersal of 500+ people North lobe: 1890 bp Smaller, but still catastrophic
12 The Athapaskan Entry: 3 Models Late Entry High Plains Route (Post-1525) Early Entry via the Great Basin (Pre-1400) Early Entry via an Intermountain Route (A.D. 1400-1450) 13 Late Entry High Plains
Hypothesis Black Hills: AD 1200 Black Hills High Plains Dinetah Pecos Pueblo Querechos High Plains Drought? AD 1250-1450 PecosRef by
Coronado Early Entry Great Basin Hypothesis Promontory Gray ceramics Promontory AD 1000 Dinetah AD1400 Early Entry Mountain
Route AD900?? Navajo Oral Traditions Navajo plant/ animal names AD1200?? Dinetah AD1400 Early sites (1541) ONLY in Dinetah
Ancestral Navajo Homeland NW New Mexico, Dintah 17 Farming, hunting, gathering, traiding, raiding Early Navajo Forked-pole Hogans Forked-pole hogans enable tree-ring dating Same structure type used til
20th century Same site layout Earliest Dates mid-1500s 18 Pueblitos Built 1710 1755 Small masonry rooms with great views Conflict with Utes.
19 Navajo Depopulation of Dinetah A severe drought which began in about 1730 had major impact on the Navajos by 1748 This drought and appear to have caused the southern and western migration of Navajo Populatuions andtheir abandonment of the Dinetah Marshall 1995:203; see also Reeve 1958:20
But did it?????? 20 Navajo Depopulation of Dinetah 1749 1748 21 Navajo Expansion out of
Dinetah Navajo Nation (current) Dinetah 22 Navajo Transition to Pastoralism After Dinetah is depopulated Expansion WestSan Juan Basin, etc. 23 better grasslands--- Why????
Long Walk to Ft. Sumner (Bosque Redondo) 250-400 miles East bank of Pecos River Now a state monument 24
Impossible Environmen tal Conditions 9,000 people: mostly Navajo, some Apache Perhaps 10,000 acres, 4,000 farmable Pecos water unpalatable (salt: 3-6 ppt) Riparian woodland quickly depleted 25 Unfortunate Timing Climatically Early 1860s drought Crops failed and/or plagued with pests Thousands died
26 Return to Pastoralism Sheep, goat numbers skyrocket and fluctuate Exceed carrying capacity (600,000), stripped vegetation 1930s: US enforced stock reduction
From ~1,300,000 to 400,000 sheep Another disaster. 27 Carrying Capacity Maximum stocking rate possible while maintaining range resources How many sheep can graze on this land How to determine? Measure forage
production: lbs./yearac Measure nutritional demand: lbs./yearanimal Divide production/demand = # animals/ac Can be applied to all 100 lb. animal species, at all scales.
acre year year 10 animals 10 lb. acre 28 Western Apache: Former
Mogollon country Lifeways: Hunting Gathering Farming Current W. Apache lands Ethnographic case study (Archaic?). 29
Hunters and Gatherers Gathering Agave Mesquite Cactus Fruits Grass Seeds Pine Nuts Hunting Deer Antelope Rabbits Squirrels
Rodents Birds 30 Apache Wikiup: Minimalist Housing Pole frame, hide and vegetation covering Allowed seasonal migration: hunting, gathering 31 Novel Twist on Apache Farming
Late spring planting When corn 1.5 feet tall (before monsoons): Water final time, then leave Gather acorns, nuts, etc. Send someone back to see if corn made it Come back in fall to harvest Dubbed casual farming Might be recent analog to late Archaic. 32 Agave Harvest Could be collected
most of the year Good for many food items 33 Peeled Trees Strip off bark Eat inner bark cambium Emergency food vs.
consistent behavior? 34 Increment core the tree Crossdate pre-scar ring growth Upper Gila example: six peelings date to 1865, an emergency year (US Army) 35 Athapaskan Summary Migration from North 1400s arrival?
Depopulation NOT Environmental Transition to Pastoralism NOT Environmental Strategic Subsistence Systems 36
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