VOC Testing Eurofins Product Testing A/S World-wide largest
VOC Testing Eurofins Product Testing A/S World-wide largest lab for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) testing Part of Eurofins Group: 15.000 employees in 37 countries, > 1 bn EUR Main group activity: Food testing (Quality, origin) VOC testing labs: Denmark, USA, China, Japan VOC Consulting and Sales also in: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden, UK October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 1 Eurofins Product Testing Locations Gteborg (SE) Galten (DK) Manchester (UK) Brussels (BE) Orlans (FR) Folsom, CA (US) Aix (FR) Hamburg (DE) Malbork (PL) Reichenwalde (DE) Bratislava, Trebiov, Ruomberok (SK) Torino (IT) Bangalore (IND) Tokyo (JN) Shanghai (CN)
Shenzhen (CN) Hong Kong (HK) Bangkok (TH) Eurofins Product Testing A/S Galten, Denmark near Aarhus [email protected] Other business areas: Tests of food, feed, pharmaceuticals, genetics, environment October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 2 Eurofins services Consulting on selection of best VOC test VOC emission chamber testing Save costs by testing for several purposes in one test set-up only VOC content testing Pre-chamber tests (Microchamber, headspace tests) Communication with authorities and labels Certification and auditing: CE mark (coming soon) German mark
Indoor Air Comfort FloorScore (via SCS, California) October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 3 VOC emissions in competitive markets VOC = volatile organic compounds Different definitions; typically solvents, additives, plasticizers with boiling point up to 250C or 280 C or 287 C VOC content and VOC emissions are different issues ! Regulations (market protection), VOC limit values European Construction Products Regulation, CE marking (VOC emissions) European Decopaint Directive 2004/42/CE (VOC content) Regulations in France, Germany, Belgium, California, Japan, (VOC emissions)
Voluntary labels (competition), lower VOC limits EMICODE, Blue Angel, M1, Indoor Air Comfort, cradle-to-cradle, Sustainable building programs Incentives for use of low VOC products (LEED, BREEAM, DGNB, Green Star, CHPS, ) October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 4 VOC emissions testing Which tests do I need? EU: Compulsory for almost all interior products in France Compulsory for several interior product groups in Germany and soon in Belgium Market advantage for low emitting products in market segments, especially with EMICODE & GUT (professionals), Blue Angel (DIY markets), M1 (Scandinavia)
Market advantage for low emitting in products for sustainable building projects, especially LEED, BREEAM; Revision of the requirements of LEED was published in 2013 ("version 4") "Indoor Air Comfort GOLD" combines most of these requirements in one label USA: No regulations on VOC emissions, only VOC content and formaldehyde emissions Market advantage for low emitting products in products for sustainable building projects, especially LEED; Revision of the requirements of LEED was published in 2013 ("version 4") in schools (CHPS) in buildings following IgCC (International Green Construction Code) October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 5 VOC content Limitation of VOC content: Limit values were established for prevention of smog and ozone formation in cities Europe:
Decopaint Directive, 2004/42/CE Volatile organic compounds, gram per liter of the whole product USA also relevant for LEED projects: Different by State and by County; best known: SCAQMD * limit values around Los Angeles Volatile compounds, minus Water, minus VOC that are not contributing to ozone formation gram per liter of organic and solid portion of the product * SCAQMD = South Coast Air Quality Management District, local environmental pollution authority October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 6 VOC content testing: Differences VOC content testing: EU: g/l VOC in the product Determination: Weight loss of a thin layer during 1 h at 110 C; ISO 11890-1 (VOC>15%) or extraction, then GC; ISO 11890-2 Water Exempt
VOCs VOCs Dispersion paints: Headspace-In-can testing possible; ISO 17895 Solids USA: g/l VOC in the product, minus water, minus "exempt compounds" that do not contribute to urban smog; i.e. : VOC are related to only part of the product (to sum of solids plus organic portion minus exempt compounds) Determination: Weight loss of a thin layer during 1 h at 110 C; SCAQMD rules and methods, EPA 24, ASTM D2369 Plus Karl-Fisher water determination, if relevant Plus extraction, then GC for determination of exempt compounds content e.g. Formulation on basis of 80% acetone (exempt compound) = 0% VOC in USA October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 7 VOC emissions and VOC content VOC content not correlated at all with in-use emissions
Evaluation mostly after 28 days in Europe, after 14 days in USA Limits after 3 days cover renovation / refurbishing Testing in ventilated test chambers; no correlation with VOC content Normally emissions decrease over time Emissions 3 ys a d 7 s y da 14 ys a d 28 Example of a decay curve Lifetime All primary emissions during lifetime = VOC content October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 8
s y da Low VOC regulations www.eurofins.com/ecolabels October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 9 National Regulations Germany: Respect the limit values, then approval by DIBt agency / mark Belgium: Respect the limit values France, VOC class label October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 10 Comparison: VOC limitations Country Germany France A+
Belgium (proposal) Legally binding Yes Yes Yes Implimentation Approval before use Labeling before sales Conformity before sales and use Need of testing Initial testing, then approval by DIBt Self-declaration Self-declaration Surveillance, re-testing Yes No
No High emitting products Ban of use in regularly occupied spaces Labeling as class C no ban Ban of sales and use indoors Duties for Manufacturer / Distributor Manufacturer / Distributor Manufacturer / Distributor, Retail October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 11 Comparison: VOC limitations Country Germany
France A+ Belgium (proposal) Concerned products All products for floorings (except stone and ceramics), floor coatings and installation products, acoustic underlays; wall papers Almost all permanently installed products indoors (List available in the Internet) All products for floorings (except stone and ceramics), floor coatings and installation products Emissions Example of decay curve Life time October 2013
www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 12 Comparison: VOC limitations Country Germany France A+ Belgium (proposal) Requirements on 3rd day of test TVOC, CMR 1A/1B None None Requirements on 28th day of test TVOC; TSVOC Limit values (LCI); R value; VOC without LCI; Formaldehyde; CMR 1A /1B TVOC;
8 single VOCs formaldehyde and acetaldehyde; 4 CMR compounds TVOC; TSVOC Limit values (LCI); R value; Toluene; Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde; CMR 1A /1B Reference for limit values (LCI) AgBB None EU / JRC (or AgBB, as long as EU-LCI values are not yet published by JRC) Calculation of TVOC VOC with LCI: Sum of all VOC with conc. > 5g/m Sum of all emitted VOC as toluene equivalent (ISO 16000-6) Sum of all VOC with
conc. > 5g/m as toluene equivalent (CEN/TS 16516) VOC without LCI: as toluene equivalent October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 13 Comparison: VOC limitations Limit values Limit values after re-calculation for European Reference Room, after 28 days storage in ventilated test chamber Country Germany France Belgium A+ (proposal) TVOC < 1000 g/m < 1000 g/m < 1000 g/m TSVOC < 100 g/m
< 1 g/m < 1 g/m Toluene Each carcinogen VOC 1A or 1B A test covering all these parameters allows an evaluation against all requirements in all member states of EU and most voluntary labels. October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 14 VOC emissions in Europe Differences between European countries: Limit values are specified by each EU member state separately. Voluntary programs: Each label can set its limit values on its own. Similarities: Harmonized testing method for use in national legal regulations and for CE marking: CEN/TS 16516.
Test method based on ISO 16000, but with more precise specifications of some details for better harmonization between testing labs. Has gone through validation of robustness, repeatability and reproducibility. Will be transferred into a CEN standard until 2016. The majority of tests for low VOC programs in Europe are based on that harmonized test method. Approach for harmonization of LCI-type emissions limit values between Germany and France in a EU funded project (organized by JRC): First publication of limit values is still pending. www.eurofins.com/cpr-voc October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 15 CE mark CE mark = uniform declaration of product properties CE mark = prerequisite for access to EU market
for several product groups Historically CE mark covered mechanical stability and fire safety Basis of CE mark is a mandate of European Commission to CEN Product specific CEN Technical Committee edits a product standard Conformity of declaration of performance with this standard allows use of CE mark VOC emissions will form part of many such standards in future For textile & resilient floorings: Amendment of EN 14041 by CEN TC 134 For wooden flooring: Amendment of EN 14342 by CEN TC 175 For flooring adhesives: Amendment of EN 14259 by CEN TC 193 CE mark targets at substituting national regulations www.eurofins.com/cpr-voc October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 16 VOC emissions and CE mark Limit values are specified by each EU member state separately. Declaration of performance associated with CE mark will contain information on performance in terms of VOC emissions.
This declaration of performance shall mirror existing national regulations: Germany and Belgium: Conformity Pass / Fail. France: Declaration of emissions class (A+, A, B or C) Level of emissions that is acceptable for CE marking can vary from one EU member state to another one. The user of a product shall read from the declaration of performance whether it is legal to distribute and to use the product in his EU member state. www.eurofins.com/cpr-voc October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 17 VOC emissions / TC 351 Harmonized VOC emissions testing, for use and reference in product specific norms CEN Technical Specification (TS 16516) available since October 2013 Basis was a robustness validation of that test method Eurofins took leadership role; 9 labs participated The robustness validation also delivered data on repeatability and reproducibility Final testing standard (EN) expected in 2015 or 2016 Harmonized TS or the later EN shall be referenced by product TCs Product standards: Specify product group specific details, e.g. Taking a representative sample
Making of test specimens But no new analytical details shall be specified Example: EN 16402, paints and coatings www.eurofins.com/cpr-voc October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 18 EN 16402 for paints and coatings Based on CEN/TS 16516 Publication circa December 2013 Supplements coating specific aspects Most important: How to prepare test specimens; draft table: October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 19 Voluntary labels Voluntary labels "on Top": Regulatory specifications = Minimum requirements
Voluntary labels = very low emitting products Very most labels are strictly national Market evaluation will determine whether an individual manufacturer will use such labels or not Organization of voluntary labels: Proof of compliance by testing and by declaration of properties Application for a license against a fee No use of the label without a license www.eurofins.com/ecolabels October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 20 VOC limitations in Europe
A test covering all these parameters allows an evaluation against all requirements in all member states of the EU: After 3 days storage in a ventilated test chamber: TVOC Carcinogenic VOC Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde After 28 days storage in a ventilated test chamber : TVOC Carcinogenic VOC Individual VOCs without LCI Toluene
R value Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde This test allows proof of conformity with national requirements and CE marking in whole Europe. October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 21 Low VOC emissions rating schemes EU Regulation: Germany (DIBt / AgBB) US Regulation: Formaldehyde (CARB, federal law) VOC content (SCAQMD and more) Belgium French label and CMR US Labels:
CE marking California CDPH "Section 01350" EU Decopaint (VOC content) Indoor Advantage Cradle-to-Cradle UL Greenguard Sustainable Building EU Labels & Specifications: EMICODE Indoor Air Comfort EU ecolabel
M1, Finland Blue Angel, Germany LEED, BREEAM, DGNB Several local labels programs, e.g. LEED, CHPS October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 22 Some voluntary labels www.eurofins.com/ecolabels October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 23 European Ecolabel
European ecolabel (also called EU "Flower" due its logo) is having long lists of criteria for several products and services Some of these include requirements on emissions of VOC and formaldehyde into indoor air, such as criteria for: Textile floorings, Wooden floorings, Mattresses VOCs are limited after 3 days. Another two criteria contain specifications on VOC content: Indoor and outdoor paints and varnishes Similar with Nordic ecolabel "Swan" Importance on most markets: LOW www.eurofins.com/eu-ecolabel October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 24 M1, Finland M1: In use for many construction products
M2 class with higher emissions is offered, but is not used in reality. VOC emissions limit values after 28 days: TVOC, formaldehyde, ammonia, odor Limit values are expressed not as air concentration, but as emission rate per m and hour; this is a very high barrier for products with small surface (e.g. sealants) Use of M1 decreased strongly the average emissions from construction products in Finland over the past decades. Many construction products used in Finland now are M1 labeled. Use of M1 label is voluntary, but it gives a significant market advantage in Finland, mainly for use in the professional building sector. www.eurofins.com/m1 October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 25 EMICODE, Europe
EMICODE: Valid for flooring adhesives, leveling compounds, primers, underlays, screeds, low VOC parquet varnishes, joint sealants, window sealings, Some dangerous ingredients in the product are excluded. VOC emissions limit values apply for all products after 3 / 28 days Different classes: EMICODE EC2 (low VOC emissions), EC1 (very low VOC emissions), EC1 PLUS (very low VOC emissions) EMICODE EC1 PLUS is similar to AgBB (with lower TVOC limits); EMICODE EC1 and EC2 just are limiting TVOC, TSVOC and carcinogens. Use of EMICODE decreased strongly the average emissions from adhesives over the past decades. Most flooring adhesives in Germany are EMICODE EC1 or EC1 PLUS. Use of EMICODE label is voluntary but gives significant market advantage across Europe, mainly in professional building sector. www.eurofins.com/emicode October 2013
www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 26 PRODIS / GUT, Europe PRODIS: Database with information on textile floorings. GUT: Is a part of this information, dealing with chemicals. Some dangerous ingredients in the product are excluded. GUT uses AgBB but with lower limit values than AgBB plus some supplemental limit values and with a simple odor test Shorter testing than 28 days (e.g. after 3 days) is possible; testing after 7 days and 28 days are other options. Influence of GUT decreased the average emissions and odors of textile floorings over the past decades. Almost all textile floorings in Europe now are GUT labeled (or on equivalent level of emissions). Use of GUT label is voluntary but gives market advantage in Europe, mainly for use in professional building sector. www.eurofins.com/gut
October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 27 Blue Angel, Germany Blue Angel is one of the oldest and largest ecolabels. Many Blue Angel criteria are specified for products where VOC is out of interest, e.g. energy saving lamps. Some criteria include requirements on emissions of VOC and formaldehyde into indoor air: Textile floorings, Resilient floorings, Wooden floorings, Mattresses, Adhesives, Sealants, Insulation, Furniture, VOC limits differ per product group, most times VOC is limited after 3 and 28 days, similar to AgBB but with lower limit values. Other criteria contain specifications on VOC content, e.g. paints Voluntary label. Importance on market: Different by product group. If relevant, then mostly in German speaking countries. www.eurofins.com/blue-angel October 2013
www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 28 Indoor Air Comfort background Industry needs a pan - European approach Many industries operate on an international level All regulation and most low VOC labels are national This means that the same property low VOC emissions needs to be shown several times in different manners Similarities of testing method allows combination of all these tests into one test set-up Limit values remain different Payment of local license fees per label Indoor Air Comfort: one global label for Europe www.indoor-air-comfort.com October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 29 Indoor Air Comfort program Combination of 4 issues: 1. Simplify life by covering the lowest limit values of most relevant emissions specifications in use in Europe if certification criteria are fulfilled (no re-invention of the wheel) (Finnish M1 is covered only partly) Combined testing only can also be performed as stand-alone service
2. Allowing use of low emission label where no such label exists, e.g. in Eastern Europe 3. Increase public trust by higher control intensity (auditing, re-testing) 4. Third-Party Auditing will support reducing emissions from products www.indoor-air-comfort.com October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 30 Indoor Air Comfort product certification Certificate = VOC Emissions are sufficiently low that most national low VOC programs in EU can be applied for Differentiation between good product and best product: Indoor Air Comfort: Low emissions, conform with all governmental specifications in EU: AgBB, French class A or better, Belgium Indoor Air Comfort GOLD Very low emissions, in addition conform with most voluntary specifications in EU: French class A+, EMICODE EC1 & EC1 Plus, GUT, M1 (only partly), Blue Angel, Austrian UZ, AFSSET, For "best of the class" products www.indoor-air-comfort.com October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing
31 US Labels California CDPH SM 1.1 "Section 01350": ANSI/BIFMA X7.1 / M7.1: Private label of SCS, based on CDPH SM 1.1 or BIFMA, combines testing with auditing of manufacturing site Cradle-to-Cradle: Low emitting office furniture program incl. VOC emissions after 7 days Indoor Advantage: National reference for VOC emissions, see separate slide Program for certification of sustainable products, incl. VOC emissions after 7 days UL Greenguard:
Private label of UL (Underwriter Laboratories), combines testing and extensive re-testing (e.g. every 3 months) with auditing of manufacturing site www.eurofins.com/ecolabel October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 32 California CDPH Section 01350 CDPH = California Department of Public Health Developed as purchase criteria in California Based on VOC emission testing First 10 days storage, then 4 days in test chamber Results are calculated for class room and for office room Testing: After (in total) 11, 12 and 14 days
Evaluation after 14 days: Limit values: of CREL (chronic respiratory exposure levels) 35 VOCs are on CREL list of 2010 No TVOC limit value in California Latest version is of 2010 (version CDPH SM 1.1) LEED v4 will require in addition to the above: Disclosure (information) of TVOC level www.eurofins.com/section-1350 October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 33 How VOC testing works www.eurofins.com/ecolabels October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 34
Emission Testing: Test specimens VOC = Volatile Organic Compounds: Solvents, plasticisers, ... October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 35 Test chambers Photo: Eurofins Product Testing A/S October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 36 Air sampling from test chamber Air is drawn from chamber exit through sampling tubes Different tubes for different substances Sampling duration is 1 2 hours Quality action 2 parallel sampling sets for avoiding random errors Avoid loss of volatiles when you expect high emissions either with 2 different sampling volumes; the higher test result will be the one without loss of volatiles and valid; or with backup tube behind main sampling tube.
Main testing standards CEN/TS 16516, EN 16402 ISO 16000 parts 3, 6, 9 and 11, EMICODE, EN 717-1, DIBt ASTM D5116, CDPH SM v1.1, BIFMA M7.1 October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 37 Analysis of air samples from chamber Most VOCs: Thermal desorption GC/MS Aldehydes: Solvent desorption HPLC/UV Retention time and spectrum: => Identity of the substance Area of the signal: => Quantity of the substance October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing
38 Significance of test result What you get from chamber testing is: Test chamber air concentration at given time mg/m, then we calculate from that: Emission rate per hour, mg/h Specific emission rate (emission factor), per area mg/mh or per mass, per device, per unit Contribution to air concentration, mg/m (source strength) in reference room (or in real room) after a specified time Compare with limit values (always given as air concentration) R value = ( concVOC i / LCIVOC i ) Example: R = 5 g/m / 100 g/m + 10 g/m / 20 g/m g/m + 80 / 2000 g/m = 0,05 + 0,5 + 0,04 = 0,59 = 59% = okay October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 39 European Reference Room I Reference room - not a test room, but just a model Needed for comparing test result with air concentration limit values European Reference Room (CEN TC 351 / CEN TS 16156): Floor area 12 m, Height 2.5 m, Volume 30 m 1 window, 1 door From that we calculate loading factors (m/m) for walls etc. air change per hour 23 C, 50% relative humidity As most products can be used in various exposure scenarios, this room is used as general reference for all situations
Testing shall simulate those rooms in small scale Test chambers made of stainless steel or glass, 50 litres to several m October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 40 European Reference Room - II Reference room data Floor 3mx4m Air change rate per h Height 2,5 m Temperature 23 C Volume 30 m Relative Humidity 50 % Intended use on
Loading factor m/m Area specific air flow m/mh Walls 1,0 0,5 Floor or ceiling 0,4 1,25 Small surfaces (e.g. a door) (1,6 2 m) 0,05 10 Very small surfaces (e.g. sealants) 0,007 72 www.eurofins.com/cpr-voc October 2013
www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 41 VOC emissions = competitive factor for indoor products www.eurofins.com/voc-testing October 2013 www.eurofins.com/voc-testing 42
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