Photosynthesis Using Light to Make Food Photosynthesis +

Photosynthesis Using Light to Make Food Photosynthesis +

Photosynthesis Using Light to Make Food Photosynthesis + H2O CO2 Energy Which splits water

ATP and NADPH2 Light is Adsorbed By Chlorophyll ADP NADP Chloroplast O2

Light Calvin Cycle Used Energy and is recycled. + C6H12O6 Dark Reaction Plants and Photosynthesis

Plants are autotrophs, ie. they can make their own food. Plants are producers of the Biosphere, ie. They produce food to sustain other living organisms as well. Photo = light; Synthesis = put together. Plant cells have chloroplasts which can capture

light energy and convert it into chemical energy stored in glucose. The Flow Of Biological Energy Photosynthesis cellular respiration carbohydrates/ energy rich O2 chloroplast

CO2 + H2O for: mitochondria ATP Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis Chloroplast

The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are concentrated in the mesophyll tissue found in the leaf. Mesophyll tissue is present right under the epidermis of the leaf and consists of Palisade tissue + spongy tissue. Chloroplast the Photosynthetic Organelle in Plant Cells

Gases: Where Does the O2 Come From? CO2 is taken into the leaf through stomata for photosynthesis. O2 is released out of the leaf through stomata as a product of photosynthesis. In order to determine whether the O2 gas product came from the reactant CO2 or from H2O, scientists used tracer

(radio-isotopic) Oxygen, first in CO2 and then in H2O as follows: Fate of Atoms in Photosynthesis It was proved from the above experiment that the O2 product came from splitting of the reactant H2O molecule. Consequently, the fate of all the atoms in the chemical reaction of photosynthesis

were determined: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Both Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration are Redox reactions, but they are reverse of each other. Whereas Photosynthesis is an endergonic reaction, Cellular Respiration is an exergonic reaction.

Two Stages of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis occurs in two stages, viz. Light reactions (during day-time only, in the thylakoid membrane) and Calvin Cycle (both day and night, in the stroma), which are linked together by NADPH and ATP. Light Used in Photosynthesis

During Photosynthesis, the chlorophyll pigments can absorb only some wavelengths of the visible light from the electromagnetic spectrum. Visible light consists of the following colors or wavelengths in order of increasing wavelengths / decreasing energy: Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and

Red. The grana of the chloroplasts absorb mainly blueviolet and red-orange lights. Green light is reflected and transmitted by green plants hence, they appear green. Light Photon = a discrete packet of light energy. The shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy.and vice-versa.

Pigments of the Chloroplast Chlorophyll a directly participates in Light reactions. Chlorophyll b and carotenoids do not directly participate in light reactions. Light Reaction

Light reaction is dependent on light and occurs only during the day in nature. It takes place in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Light reactions involve a) Splitting of water to produce oxygen, b) Energy production (ATP)

and c) Reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Basic steps of a Light Reaction Light reaction involves the following basic steps: 1) Absorption of light 2) Excitation of Chlorophyll a and emission of electron

3) Formation of ATP and NADPH via the electron transport chain Components of Light Reaction Light / Solar Energy / Photon Reaction Center = Chlorophyll a and primary electron acceptor Antenna = Reaction center and other pigment molecules

that gather light. Photosystem = Antenna + Reaction center. Photosystem II In Photosystem II, chlorophyll a molecule is the reaction center. This molecule absorbs orange-red light which has a higher energy level.

Its excited state (due to light absorption) emits electrons that are accepted by a primary electron acceptor and passed down an electron transport chain, eventually replenishing the lost electrons from Photosystem I. H20 is split into H+ (protons), electrons and Oxygen gas. These electrons replenish the lost electrons from PhotosystemII. Photosystem I There are two types of Photosystems, (viz. Photosystem I and Photosystem II) occuring within

the thylakoid membrane. Its excited state emits electrons which are accepted by the primary electron acceptor and passed down an electron transport chain, eventually reducing NADP+ to NADPH. Photosystems I and II Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Cycle)

Calvin Cycle named after Dr. Calvin It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. Calvin Cycle involves the production of food as glucose, with the utilization of CO2, energy and NADPH. Calvin Cycle (TCA) or Dark Reaction

The Calvin Cycle can take place during the day and the night in the stroma of the chloroplast. It is powered by ATP and NADPH, synthesized during the light reactions therefore, Calvin cycle depends upon the products of Light reaction. Calvin Cycle - Continued

The Calvin Cycle utilizes CO2 in carbon fixation which is finally converted into Glucose. An excess of glucose is converted into starch stored in roots, tubers and fruits. The Calvin Cycle cont

(TCA) Carbon dioxide fixation. The NADPH and ATP from the light reaction provide the energy for producing glucose from carbon dioxide. This takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. a. 6 molecules of CO2 enter the cycle. Rubisco, an enzyme, is responsible for fixing CO2 to an existing molecule.

b. 6 molecules of Ribulose phosphate (5-C each) affix 6 CO2 to make 12 phosphoglycerates (PGA) (3-C each) c. ATP and NADPH are used to convert these to 12 phosphoglyceraldehydes (PGAL) (3-C each) d. 2 PGAL are removed to make glucose, while 10 return to remake 5 Ribulose phosphates (5-C each).

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