Characterbased phylogenetic methods Earth, which has seemed so

Characterbased phylogenetic methods Earth, which has seemed so

Characterbased phylogenetic methods Earth, which has seemed so large, must now be seen in its smallness. We live in a closed system, absolutely dependent on Earth and on each other for our lives and those of succeeding generations. The many things that divide us are therefore of infinitely less importance than the interdependence and danger that unite us. (C. R. Darwin) 1 Table of contents Parsimony and phylogenetics Ancestral deduced sequences Quick search strategies Consensus trees Confidence of a tree Comparisons among phylogenetic methods Molecular phylogenies 2

Introduction Phylogenetic analysis has the aim of tracing the evolutionary relationships among different entities, called taxonomic units, mostly represented by sequences of nucleic acids, then reconstructing their evolutionary history phylogenetic inference From the genetic point of view, evolution just consists in accumulating mutations: thus, it is possible to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among nucleic acids simply on the basis of the degree of similarity/ diversity of representing sequences The ultimate goal of phylogenetic analysis is that to construct a phylogenetic tree, able to describe the most probable evolutionary path followed by the species actually living on the Earth 3 Parsimony The concept of parsimony (from the Latin word parcere, to save) is central for the characterbased methods for phylogenetic reconstruction

In the biological sense, the term is used to describe the process that leads to prefer a particular evolutionary path based on the lowest number of predicted mutational events The two premises that underlie the concept of biological parsimony can be summarized as: mutations are extremely rare events a model that postulates unlikely events, is probably incorrect Those relationships that require the fewest number of mutations to explain the current status of the considered 4 sequences are the most likely correct Parsimony, why? 1 Philosophical principle enunciated in the fourteenth century by William of Ockham: among different explanations, the simplest is preferable; it looks needless to resort to many assumptions if the same event can be explained by few hypotheses Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem God created all things, and God would not have created anything complex if he could reach the same task in a

simpler way Ockhams razor: It represents the basic principle of the modern scientific thought; in its most immediate form suggests the futility of formulating more theories of those that are strictly necessary to explain a given phenomenon 5 Parsimony, why? 2 Natural selection favors rapid adaptations, that is obtained through the least possible number of evolutionary steps Statistically speaking, evolutionary changes are rare, so it is unlikely that they occur many times Maximum parsimony is an optimality criterion under which the phylogenetic tree that minimizes the total number of characterstate changes must be preferred 6

Informative and non-informative sites 1 There is an important distinction between informative and noninformative sites Which sites within a multiple alignment have an useful information content for a parsimonious approach? Example 1 (to be continued) Sequences a b c d e f

1 G G G G G G 2 G G

G A G T 3 G G A T A

G 4 G A T C A T 7 Informative and non-informative sites 2 Example 1 (to be continued)

The relationship among four sequences may be described through three different unrooted trees (NU (2s5)![2s3(s3)!]); the ); the informative sites are those that allow to distinguish one out of the three trees based on the number of mutations it postulates 1 3 1 2 2 4 3 4

1 2 4 3 8 Informative and non-informative sites 3 Example 1 (to be continued) 1G G3 G 1G

G2 G 2G G G4 3G G4 1G G2 G 4G

G 0 mutations G G3 In the first position of the alignment, all four sequences share the same character (G) and the position is said to be invariant 9 Informative and non-informative sites 4 Example 1 (to be continued) The invariant sites are obviously noninformative sites, because each of the three possible trees that describe the relationship among the four sequences postulates exactly the same number of mutations (0) Similarly, position b is noninformative from a parsimony point of view, since a mutation occurs in each of

the three possible trees 10 Informative and non-informative sites 5 Example 1 (to be continued) 1G G3 G 1G G2 G 2G G

A4 3G A4 1G G2 G 4A G 1 mutation G G3

11 Informative and non-informative sites 6 Example 1 (to be continued) Also position c is noninformative because all the three trees require two mutations 1G A3 G 1G G2 A 2G G

T4 3A T4 1G G2 G 4T G 2 mutations G A3

12 Informative and non-informative sites 7 Example 1 (to be continued) so as position d, in which all the trees postulate three mutations 1G T3 G 1G A2 T 2A G

C4 3T C4 1G A2 G 4C A A 3 mutations T3

13 Informative and non-informative sites 8 Example 1 (to be continued) In contrast, positions e and f are actually informative, because, in both cases, one of the trees postulates only one mutation, while the others require two mutations 1G A3 G 1G G2 A 2G

G A4 3A 1G A4 G2 G 4A G G A3 14

Informative and non-informative sites 9 Example 1 1G G3 G 1G T2 G 2T G T4 3G

T4 1G T2 G 4T T G G3 15 Informative and non-informative sites 10 In general, in order for a position to be informative, regardless of how many sequences are aligned, it

must contain at least two different nucleotides, each of which must be present at least twice The noninformative positions are simply discarded and not considered in the subsequent parsimony analysis Vice versa, noninformative positions do contribute to pairwise similarity scores used in distancebased approaches Very different conclusions can be drawn depending on the chosen method (distance or characterbased) 16 Unweighted parsimony 1 Once noninformative sites are identified and discarded, the parsimony approach can be implemented in its simplest form For each informative site, we consider the three possible trees For each tree, a score is maintained that keeps track of the minimum number of substitutions required for each position After considering all the informative sites, the tree (or the

trees) which postulates the fewest number of substitutions is, by definition, the most parsimonious Example 2: In an analysis involving only four sequences, each informative site favor only one of the three alternative trees, and the tree which is supported by the greatest number of informative sites is also the most parsimonious one 17 Unweighted parsimony 2 The evaluation of the alignments for five or more sequences is decidedly more complicated The number of different unrooted trees grows exponentially with the number of sequences to be aligned Even having identified a small number of informative sites, the approach by hand is inapplicable for more than seven/eight sequences The individual sites can support more than one alternative tree and the maximum parsimony tree does not necessarily coincide with that supported by the largest number of informative sites

Calculating the number of all postulated substitutions for each alternative tree is a hard problem just for only five sequences (15 trees) 18 Unweighted parsimony 3 Example 3 (to be continued) G G A A T (GAT) (GA) 9 (GTA) 9 (GT)

G 8 8 G A 6 7 A 6 7 1

2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 G

G A A T G G T A A (GA) 9

G G A 8 6 7 1 2 3 4

5 G T G A A 19 Unweighted parsimony 4 Example 3 (to be continued) Determining the number of postulated substitutions for each tree requires to infer the most likely nucleotide in each of the four internal nodes from the nucleotides present in each of the five terminal nodes

The parsimony rule makes it easy to determine the nucleotide at position 6 (relative to the first two trees): the ancestral nucleotide must be a G, or a replacement should be happened along both the lineages leading to the terminal node 1 and 2 We can analogously justify the allocation of A in position 7 The nucleotide in the ancestral node 8, however, cannot be determined unambiguously, but based on the parsimony rule, it should be A or G, in the first tree, and G or T, in the second At node 9, the triad G, A, T certainly contains the most 20 parsimonious nucleotide Unweighted parsimony 5 Example 3 Instead, for the last tree Nodes 1 and 2 suggest that the nucleotide in the ancestral node 6 is G or T However, also node 3 indicates G as the candidate nucleotide

By assigning G as the ancestral nucleotide to the nodes 6 and 8, for this portion of the tree, only one replacement must be postulated (along the lineage leading from node 6 to node 2) All the other three alternatives (assigning a T to node 6, to node 8 or to both nodes 6 and 8) would require at least two substitutions 21 Unweighted parsimony 6 From a methodological point of view, the rule for assigning ancestral positions is the following: The set of nucleotides that are the most probable candidates for an internal node is represented by the intersection of the two sets corresponding to its immediate descendant nodes, if the intersection is not empty Otherwise, it is represented by the union of the sets corresponding to its descendant nodes When a union is needed to form a set of nodes, a substitution has been occurred at a certain point of the evolutionary path that leads to that position

Thus, the number of unions represents also the minimum number of substitutions required to get the nucleotides at the terminal nodes, since they have shared a common ancestor 22 Unweighted parsimony 7 This method applies only to informative sites The minimum number of substitutions for a non informative site is, instead, the number of different nucleotides present in the terminal nodes minus one Example 4: If the nucleotides present in a particular position in a five sequence alignment are G, G, A, G, T, then the minimum number of substitutions is 312, regardless of the tree topology The noninformative sites contribute with an equal number of replacements to all the alternative trees and are excluded from the parsimony analyses However, it is the total number of substitutions that defines the length of the tree and, to the length, also noninformative sites actually contribute

23 Weighted parsimony 1 Despite having established the general principle that mutations are rare events, inferring from this that all mutations are equivalent is an oversimplification (e.g., substitutions vs. indel events, indel length, transitions vs. transversions, etc.) If we could associate a value to the relative probability of different mutation events, these values would be translated into weights and used by parsimony algorithms Difficulty in defining a single set of weights with universal validity or otherwise usable by many different sets of data, because... some sequences (for example, noncoding sequences with tandem repeats) are more prone to indel events than others the functional importance differs greatly from gene to gene and from species to species also for homologous genes the predisposition to soft substitutions (e.g. GC with AT, or between codons that specify the same amino acid) usually varies

from gene to gene and from species to species 24 Weighted parsimony 2 The best choice for the weights is related to a particular set of empirical data Example 5: If, for a particular multiple alignment, comparisons between each single sequence and a consensus sequence indicate that the transitions are three times more common than transversions, then: Values equal to 1 and 0.33 must be, respectively, associated to transversions and transition At the end of the analysis, the tree predicting the smallest number of the most common mutation events is the most parsimonious 25 Ancestral deduced sequences 1 A remarkable result of parsimony analysis is the deduction of ancestral sequences generated during the analysis itself

In fact, if the process of deduction of a particular ancestral nucleotide may seem trivial, much less banal is its extension, for example, to a gene sequence In particular, when the structure and the function of a protein are well known, the occurred amino acid substitutions may provide very interesting clues on the physiology of extremely ancient organisms and on the environment in which they lived Thanks to the deduced ancestors generated by parsimony analysis, the study of molecular evolution has no missing links and the intermediate states can be objectively inferred from the sequences of their living descendants 26 Ancestral deduced sequences 2 The informative sites that support internal branches of the deduced tree are called synapomorphies The synapomorphy is, in fact, a derived character, i.e., a new shared character, useful for reconstructing phylogenetic trees Each hypothetical synapomorphy is subjected to a congruence test, that is, its pattern of distribution among various taxa is examined in comparison with other characters

All the other informative sites are considered homoplasies (similar characters that appeared independently in different taxa, through convergence, parallelism and inversions, rather than inherited from a common ancestor) 27 Ancestral deduced sequences 3 Plesiomorphy Plesiomorphy It describes the presence, in organisms belonging to different species, of an ancestral character that represents an innovative common evolution; for example, the spine is a plesiomorph character for the whole Vertebrata subphylum Synapomorphy

Autapomorphy Autapomorphy It is a derived trait that is unique in each group; an autapomorph character is neither present in the closest relatives of the terminal group nor in the common ancestral progenitors 28 Quick search strategies The basic rules of parsimony remain the same both in the simplest case of an alignment involving only four sequences and for multiple alignments involving many sequences Anyway, using a standard parsimony approach, it quickly becomes impossible to perform even few alignments by hand, albeit containing a small number of informative sites To analyze 10 sequences, more than 2 million trees must be considered and the exhaustive search becomes a prohibitive approach just for 12 sequences Conversely, in real world applications, data to be processed are normally hundreds of times larger than

that allowed by the above limitations Efficient search algorithms 29 Branch and bound 1 Originally proposed by Hardy and Penny in 1982, the branch and bound method consists of two steps: 1) Fixing an upper bound, L, for the most parsimonious tree heigth w.r.t. a certain set of data; L can be estimated randomly choosing a tree that describes the relations among all the sequences to be analysed building a reasonable approximation of the most parsimonious tree (for example, by UPGMA) 2) Construction of each tree, adding a branch at a time, to include all the sequences to be analysed, ending the procedure when the tree reaches the previously established heigth L

30 Branch and bound 2 What makes the method actually effective is the fact that each tree, consisting of a subset of the data, which requires more than L substitutions, must forcibly become longer with the addition of new sequences It cannot be the most parsimonious tree If, during the analysis, we build trees with length smaller than L, L can be updated accordingly, making the method also more efficient 31 Branch and bound 3 C2.1 C2.2 C2.3

C2.4 C2.5 A unique unrooted tree exists that describes the relationships between three sequences Then, there exist three possible unrooted trees obtained just adding another sequence to the alignment C3.1 C3.2 C3.3 C3.4 C3.5

C1.1 C1.3 C1.5 C1.2 C1.4 32 Branch and bound 4 33 Branch and bound 5 As the exhaustive search, the branch and bound method ensures that, at the end of the analysis, all the optimal trees according to the maximum parsimony criterion were found Branch and bound is several orders of magnitude faster than the exhaustive search

However it is useful for the alignment of at most twenty sequences, while it is computationally untenable for multiple alignments that involve the analysis of more than 1021 unrooted trees 34 Heuristic search 1 The amount of sequence information is continuously increasing and it is quite common that multiple alignments involve more than twenty sequences Necessity of using computationally less expensive algorithms that, anyway, cannot always guarantee the global optimum Assumptions underlying all heuristic methods: The alternative trees are not independent each other Since the most parsimonious trees should have very similar topologies to trees that are a little less thrifty, all heuristic searches begin with a tree building phase; such tree is used as a starting point for finding the shortest trees 35

Heuristic search 2 Heuristic searches actually work well if the initial tree is a good approximation of the most parsimonious tree However, instead of building alternative trees branch by branch, the heuristic search generates complete trees, with topologies similar to that of the starting tree, performing exchanges in the tree branches and grafting them on other portions of the best tree found up to that point in the analysis Nearest Neighbor Interchange Subtree Pruning and Regrafting Tree Bisection and Reconnection 36 Heuristic search 3 Nearest Neighbor Interchange

37 Heuristic search 4 Subtree Pruning and Regrafting 38 Heuristic search 5 Tree Bisection and Reconnection 39 Heuristic search 6 In all the cases, a rearrangement is accepted if it produces a tree better (shorter) than the tree from which it is obtained The process is repeated until an exchange cycle fails to produce a tree that is equal to or shorter than the tree generated during the previous cycle of pruning and grafting

40 Heuristic search 7 The heuristic algorithms take into account the impossibility of examining all the enormous number of alternative unrooted trees obtained by complex multiple alignments, emphasizing the exchange of branches on trees more and more parsimonious This process can give rise to the stall of the algorithm on topologies which do not necessarily exhibit the least number of substitutions In other words, if the initial tree is far from the most parsimonious tree, it may not be possible to get to it without making an arrangement that, at first, increases the number of substitutions 41 Heuristic search 8 Occasionally exploring ways to increase the length of

the trees, in the hope of going beyond local minima, involves a very high computational cost Since it is the amount of alignments, and not their length, to create the largest computational problems, a plausible alternative is to split alignments, involving many sequences, into smaller groups 42 Heuristic search 9 Example Multiple alignments among a large number of homologous sequences of mammals can be realized by dividing/grouping: The primates, to determine the relationships at the top of their tree trunk The rodents, to determine the relationships at the top of their tree trunk A subset of artiodactyls (cows), lagomorphs (rabbits), primates and rodents, to examine the oldest and the most recent divergence events

Opportunity to examine the most ancient divergences and the final positioning of the most detailed trunks of rodents and primates 43 Heuristic search 10 When such a strategy is adopted, having an a priori knowledge of the general relations among the sequences (e.g., all the primates are related to each other more than they are to any other mammals) is crucial but not essential, because a heuristic algorithm may also be required to consider separately each group of sequences that exceeds a particular threshold of pairwise similarity 44 Consensus trees 1 Parsimony approaches normally produce many

equally parsimonious trees, too many to be used as a summary of the underlying phylogenetic information A consensus tree must be defined, that summarizes all the most parsimonious trees The branch points where all the considered trees are in agreement are represented in the consensus trees as bifurcations The points of disagreement are merged together in internal nodes that connect three or more descendant branches 45 Consensus trees 2 Consensus tree Equally parsimonious trees 46 Consensus trees 3

In a strict consensus tree, all the disagreement points are treated in an uniform manner, even when a single tree is not consistent with hundreds of others, which agree with respect to a particular branch point Alternatively, using the more than 50% consensus rule, each internal node that is present in at least half of the trees is represented as a simple bifurcation, while the nodes on which less than half of the trees are in agreement are represented as multifurcations 47 Consensus trees 4 Strict consensus More than 50% consensus rule

48 Tree confidence All phylogenetic trees represent a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of the sequences that make up a dataset It is therefore appropriate to ask the following questions How much confidence can be associated with a tree as a whole and with its constituent parts (subtrees/ arcs)? Bootstrapping Which is the probability that a certain tree is actually correct with respect to an alternative tree chosen ad hoc or at random? Parametric tests 49 Bootstrapping 1 Different portions of inferred trees can be determined

with varying confidence degrees The bootstrap test allows a rough quantification of such confidence levels Bootstrap A subset of the original data is extracted (based on permutations) and a new tree is inferred from that subset The process of creating new subsets is repeated in order to create hundreds/thousands of resampled datasets The portions of the inferred trees that are mostly represented in the consensus tree are those particularly well supported by the original set of data 50 Bootstrapping 2 Position Sequence Position Sequence

Bootstrap tree #1 Bootstrap tree #2 Inferred tree Position Sequence Sequence Position Bootstrap tree

#n Bootstrap consensus tree The numbers that count the fraction of bootstrap trees reproducing the same node are positioned close to the corresponding node in the consensus tree, to provide indications on the relative confidence of each part of the tree 51 Bootstrapping 3 The frequency with which different groups are found in the constructed consensus tree (called bootstrap proportions) is a measure of the statistical support for that group Values above 80% indicate a very strong support

However, even values higher than 50% indicate that a group is frequently found in the pseudo datasets A low statistical support does not necessarily imply a wrong clade 52 Bootstrapping 4 Despite the frequent use of bootstraplike methods in the scientific literature, the bootstrap results should be treated with some caution When they are based on few iterations, that is, cycles of resampling and tree generation, they are probably not very reliable, especially when a large number of sequences is involved The confidence is normally underestimated at high levels and overestimated at low levels Fallacy of multiple tests: simple fluctuations seem to have statistical significance

Apart from the highlighted problems, in this way, trees that are more accurate representations of the true phylogenetic tree can be normally gained, with respect to the method of calculating the single most 53 parsimonious tree Parametric tests 1 Since the parsimony approaches often generate a lot of trees that have the same minimum number of substitutions, there are also many alternative trees that postulate a few more substitutions Even in this case, the principle underlying the concept of parsimony suggests that the tree which postulates the fewest number of substitutions most probably describes the true relationship among the sequences However, there does not exist a limit on the number of replacements postulated by the most parsimonious tree and, for datasets that involve many dissimilar

sequences, many thousands of replacements can easily be estimated 54 Parametric tests 2 In such cases, it is reasonable to ask whether a tree, which is already so unlikely as to postulate 10000 substitutions, is significantly more likely than an alternative tree which postulates 10001 substitutions Or how much greater is the probability of the most parsimonious tree with respect to a particular alternative tree previously proposed to describe the relationship among a given set of taxa? To this question it is possible to provide an answer, albeit partial, using a parametric test A parametric test is a statistical test that can be applied to normally distributed data 55 Parametric tests 3 This is done by performing a hypothesis testing on the value of a parameter, such as the standard deviation,

the equality between two means, etc. In a phylogenetic context, the parametric test most often used is due to H. Kishino and M. Hasegawa (1989) It is assumed that the informative sites within an alignment are independent and equivalent, and the difference of the minimum number of substitutions postulated by two trees is used as a statistical test (calculating the variance) V n/(n1) [Di(1/n)Dk]); the 2 56 Parametric tests 4 The null hypothesis of this test is that the two compared trees share the same probability (that can happen only when the non shared interior branches have 0 length or, in other words, if the two trees almost coincides)

t (D/n)[V 1/2 n 1/2]); the Alternative parametric tests are available not only for parsimony analysis, but also for distance matrices and maximum likelihood trees 57 Comparison among phylogenetic methods Neither phylogenetic reconstruction methods based on distance, nor those based on characters can guarantee to be able to describe the true tree that tracks the evolutionary history of a set of aligned sequences However Those datasets which allow a method to infer the correct phylogenetic relationship, generally, lead to good results with all the commonly used approaches If many changes have been occurred within the data or if the substitution frequencies significantly vary from branch to branch, no method works in a truly reliable way

If, by processing a dataset with fundamentally different methods, we always obtain the same tree, that tree can be considered reliable 58 Molecular phylogenies In the last thirty years, numerous interesting examples of evolutionary relationships deciphered by sequence analysis have been accumulated These studies have had important implications in medicine, agriculture, conservation of the species It is likely that a particular drug effective against a certain type of infection is also effective on infections caused by related organisms Easy transfer of resistance factors to parasites among closely related plant species Possibility of determining whether a given population of organisms is distinguished enough to be classified as a separate species, to eventually deserve it a special protection 59

The tree of life 1 One of the most striking cases in which the sequence analysis has provided new insights into the evolutionary relationships is related to the understanding of the fundamental classifications of life forms Originally, biologists divided all life forms into two main groups: plants and animals Nevertheless, with the subsequent discoveries of new organisms and with the study of their characteristics, this simple dichotomy became not convincing It was then later recognized that organisms could be divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes, on the basis of their cellular structure 60 The tree of life 2 Most recently, several classifications have been accepted for living organisms, such as the five kingdoms proposed by Whittaker: prokaryotes, protists, plants, fungi and animals However, a negative test i.e. the absence of internal

membranes that distinguishes prokaryotes has been universally recognized as inadequate to taxonomically group all the living organisms Since the late 70s, for the first time, RNA and DNA sequences were used to discover the basic lines of the evolutionary history of all the species 61 The tree of life 3 In a famous study, Carl Woese et al. built an evolutionary tree for all the forms of life based on the nucleotide sequences of the 16s rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene, which is present in all the organisms The rRNA is the most conserved component of the cell The genes coding for rRNA are sequenced to identify the taxonomic group of an organism, to recognize related groups and estimate the divergence rate among the various species The evolutionary tree reveals three main groups:

Bacteria prokaryotes Eucarya eukaryotic organisms, such as plants, animals and fungi Archaea thermophilic bacteria and little known organisms, that can be studied only through their rRNA sequences 62 The tree of life 4 63 The tree of life 5 It was found that Bacteria and Archaea, although both prokaryotes as devoid of internal membranes, were so genetically different as Bacteria and Eucarya The deep evolutionary differences between Bacteria and Archaea were not obvious on the basis of the phenotype, whereas the fossil record was completely silent on this topic The differences became clear only after their nucleotide sequences were compared

Sequences of 5s rRNA and of some genes coding for fundamental proteins also support their membership to two different evolutionary groups 64 The origin of man 1 Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Eumetazoa Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia Subclass: Eutheria Order: Primates Superfamily: Hominoidea Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Homo sapiens Subspecies: Homo sapiens sapiens

65 The origin of man 2 In contrast to the large variability observed in size, in the body shape, in the facial features, w.r.t. the skin color, the muscle fibers, the bone density, etc., genetic differences between human populations are relatively small The analysis of mtDNA sequences reveals that the average difference between two human populations is approximately of 0.33% Other primates show much greater differences: the two orangutan subspecies differ for about 5% Human groups are closely related even if they have some genetic differences 66 The origin of man 3 Surprisingly, the major differences are not found between populations located on different continents, but among the people living in Africa

All other human populations show less significant differences than those detectable among the African people Man originated and underwent the first evolutionary divergence in Africa After the development of a number of genetically differentiated populations, a small group of humans could be migrated out of Africa and has originated all other human populations OutofAfrica theory: analysis of data coming both from the mitochondrial DNA and from the Y chromosome in the nucleus are consistent with this hypothesis 67 The origin of man 4 Further interpretations of the data suggest that all living humans share mitochondria that are derived from a mitochondrial Eve and that the Y chromosome of all men comes from a Y Adam chromosome of about 200,000 years ago

68 Just a curiosity 1 Beleza et al., Molecular Biology and Evolution, January 2013 Study of several genes that affect the skin color in order to understand when the divergence event has occurred The results showed that the spread of an allele, shared by both Europeans and Asians, dated back to about 30,000 years ago, after the migration from Africa, that occurred about 100,000 years ago Conversely, variants of other genes, typically related to European populations, would be much more recent, dating back to 11,00019,000 years ago But what have been the factors that influenced the selection of gene variants that code for a lighter color of the skin? 69

Just a curiosity 2 The period between 11,000 and 19,000 years ago is at the peak of the last ice age and it is reasonable to believe that human beings, to protect themselves from the cold weather, covered themselves and lived in shelters, limiting their exposure to UV rays It is likely that these changes have encouraged the spread of alleles for clear skin, so as to ensure an adequate production of vitamin D, which is useful to fix calcium in the bones The selection of genes coding for a clearer complexion occurred, in European populations, relatively recently and the selective pressure has favored the cutaneous conditions for an adequate synopsis of vitamin D With a little sun exposure, a skin less rich in melanin is efficient at producing vitamin D, and reduce the risk of its lack and the related consequences 70 Concluding 1

Characterbased phylogenetic reconstruction methods mainly focus on the parsimony principle substitutions are rare events and the phylogeny that invokes the fewest number of substitutions is the one that most likely reflects the true relationship between the considered sequences In addition to describe relationships among the sequences, parsimony approaches can provide potentially useful inferences about the sequence of long extinct ancestors of all the living organisms However, the parsimony analysis can be computationally heavy, especially if considering multiple alignments related to a great amount of sequences 71 Concluding 2 The analysed data often lead to different trees that are equally parsimonious and, to summarize them, consensus trees can be used There are several methods to determine the robustness of parsimonious trees, including bootstrap and parametric tests, although we cannot guarantee that an inferred tree both with characterbased and distancebased approaches represents the true evolutionary relationship among the considered sequences 72

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