SPOC Automation and BECI- who are we? Pump Focused VFD company Specialists in Optimizing Pump Control SPOC 15+ Years in business BECI 16+ Years in business Both Family Owned SPOC Based in Trussville, AL
BECI Based in Conway, AR 2 Efficiency using Automation VFDs
Power Basics AC Motor Basics AFD Basics Energy Savings Basics Discrete Automation Advantages POWER Basics
The Basics HP is the measurement of the work that the motor can perform. 33,000 ft/lbs per minute 1 HP = or
746 Watts Note: 5250 comes from (33,000 ftlbf/min)/(2 rad/rev) The Basics Torque is: directly proportional to HP indirectly proportional to speed
related to current demand so, the higher the torque, the higher the HP the higher the current demand. To understand Horsepower and Torque better, we need to understand how a motor works.. AC Motor Basics
The Basics Electric motors convert electrical energy to mechanical energy The Basics The motor stator is made up of a series of windings wound to
create a series of magnetic poles when energized The Basics When 3 phase AC power is applied to the stator winding a rotating magnetic
field is created. The Basics Induction causes Rotor rotation The rotor tries to align itself with the rotating magnetic field. With no losses, the
rotor would rotate at the synchronous speed. The Basics An induction motor is basically a constant speed device because the stator field rotates based on the frequency of the AC power system
Looking at the equation differently: what would happen to the speed of the AC Motor if the frequency to the stator changed? The Basics 10 Hz 300
30 Hz 900 60 Hz 1800 VFD Basics
VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES How does a Variable Frequency Drive Work? THREE SECTIONS 1. CONVERTER - Transforms (Converts) AC Line Power to DC Voltage 2. DC FILTER - The DC Voltage is Cleaned 3. INVERTER - Tranforms (Inverts) the DC Voltage to Synthetic AC Voltage
DRIVE TERMS Pulse Width Modulation (output) Definition - DC current is switched on and off quickly to appoximate an AC sine wave Energy Savings Basics Energy savings
50HP Motor running full speed for a yearHow much does it cost to run? @ 10 Cents per kwh, about $30k 20 Typical Variable Torque Loads Most Pumps Supply and Exhaust Fans
Aerators Variable Torque Application HP = K(Operating speed/nameplate speed)3 Max Volts Variable Torque Constant HP
230/460/575 This is THE $$$$ Equation!!! V/Hz Ratio V/Hz Ratio
Output Voltage V/Hz Ratio 0 Frequency
60 Hz Extended Frequency Variable Torque Application HP = K(Operating speed/nameplate speed)3
Why is this considered to be THE $$$$ Equation? Energy Savings! HP equals cube of the speed, so speed = (1/2) x (1/2) x (1/2) = 1/8 HP speed = 1/64 HP A 100HP motor at speed requires 12.5 HP HP is directly proportional to $
Savings Example-oversized fan If a zoo runs a 10HP Motor for 24 hours a day at full speed: 10HP x (1)3 x 0.746 KW/HP = 7.46KW 7.46KW x 24 hours = 179 KWhrs If a zoo runs a 10HP motor for 24 hours a day at 3/4 speed: 100HP x (3/4)3 x 0.746 KW/HP = 3.14 KW 3.14 KW x 24 hours = 75.36 KWhrs
58% Savings simply by slowing the fan down by 25%. New Reduced airflow through fan is 75% of original Savings Example- If a zoo runs a 100HP Pump for 12 hours a day at full speed: 100HP x (1)3 x 0.746 KW/HP = 74.6KW 74.6KW x 12 hours = 895 KWhrs If a zoo runs a 100HP Pump for 24 hours a day at speed: 100HP x (1/2)3 x 0.746 KW/HP = 9.4 KW
24 hour day: 9.4 KW x 24 hours = 225 KWhrs 75% energy savings to move the same amount of fluid VFD Myth Buster #1 Myth: VFDs are rated VT and CT Fact: VFDs are rated based on over-current capabilites. Typically, drives are rated at 110% overload for 1 minute, or
150% overload for 1 minute. AFD Myth Buster #2 Myth: AFDs are inefficient at low speeds. Fact: The AFD is typically >96% efficient throughout the speed range. The concern is the AC Motor: It is self-cooled The slower the motor is going, the less cooling from the fan
Most modern motors have specifications for what is allowed AFD Myth Buster #3 Myth: Ill burn up motors if I connect more than one to an AFD Fact: One of the biggest benefits of an AFD is that more than one motor can be controlled by one drive. All motors will receive the same voltage and frequency.
Automation VFD Basics Pump Automation + VFD
Controls 30 Pump Automation Variable Capacity Control process
Flexibility for rate of flow or compression Safety interlocks Eliminate manual adjustments to hit targets Energy Savings
+ 31 Pump Automation Easy, right? ..but we forgot a couple things 32
A Simpler Way Pump Automation PLC VFD Automation VFD
SCADA 35 PLC Technician Typical Controls Branch of Electrical Contractor Usually 1 or 2 techs Exists to support
contractor business Dedicated Controls Company Typically small company Can do anything approach Customized solutions 36 Automation VFD ..Its In There
Simple Operation Operator Friendly Startup Standard Product Standard Support 37 Automation Drives ..Its In There
Reduce Electrical Costs Reduce On-off Cycles Eliminate Bypass Valves Simplified Startup Single Vendor responsibility Easy System Troubleshooting 38
Automation Drives Typical savings $10-$15k installed cost advantage of traditional PLC based approach Optimized for smaller systems with a few pumps or fans per system Simple setpoint changes Flow Pressure Temperature
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