Pollination Defn.? Pollination Defn: transfer pollen from stamen to stigma Carpel = pistil Sporic meiosis:
Life Cycle Gametophytes make gametes BY MITOSIS Sporophyte makes meiospores BY MEIOSIS Two bodies/one cycle: alternation of generations Spore: cell grows into organism
w/o joining with another cell Overview: Life Cycle Life Cycle Overview:
Fertilization: union sperm with egg to form zygote Floral variation Parts may be fused Like parts: connation (ex., petals to petals) Unlike parts: adnation (ex., stamens to petals)
Anisacanthus (Acanthaceae) flower Snapdragon flower Floral variation Flower with stamens and pistil: perfect flower Another kind of
perfection. Floral variation Some flowers imperfect. Pistillate or staminate Pistillate flowers Sagittaria Staminate flowers Sagittaria Floral variation
Pistillate & staminate flowers on separate individuals: Dioecy (MUST outcross) Monoecy: both sexes on same individual. Flower missing one or more sets parts: incomplete flower All imperfect flowers incomplete! Who am I?
Floral variation Some flowers grouped: inflorescence Special type: head. Ex, sunflower Often: ray & disk flowers ray
flowers disk flowers Pollination as Mutualism Most flowers pollinated by animals Exceptions: wind pollinated (anemophily) water pollinated (hydrophily)
Usually mutualism (+,+) Plant: pollen transferred Animal: reward Animal Reward Rewards Pollen: high protein
Also lipids, minerals, starch Renewed by: sequential anther dehiscence (multiple stamens) poricidal anthers (buzz pollination) Rewards Nectar: sugary fluid produced by
nectaries 10-60% mono- or disaccharides amino acids too (butterfly flowers) Renewable reward! Plant benefit?
Pollination Benefits animal pollination (to plant) 1) Directed dispersal pollen: Floral cues and attractants Learning decreases handling time Floral constancy: visit single species on foraging trip Bumblebee
visits to touch-me-not Pollination Benefits of animal pollination 2) Style as selective racetrack 1 pollen grain fertilizes 1 ovule Pollen grains
stigma style ovary 2 ovules Pollination Benefits of animal pollination 2) Style as selective racetrack Pollen tubes
How many can fertilize an ovule? Pollen grains stigma pollen tubes style ovary
2 ovules Pollination Benefits of animal pollination 2) Style as selective racetrack Pollen tubes haploid (1n) 1 allele for every trait Pollen grains
stigma style ovary 2 ovules Pollination Benefits of animal pollination 2) Style as selective racetrack
Favor outcrossing: 3) Floral phenology Protandry: anthers dehisce first Protogyny: stigma becomes receptive first Protandry
Outcrossing Favor outcrossing: 4) Self-incompatibility: prevent germination self pollen or slow self pollen tube growth Pollinator Specialization May be learned
May be species-specific Monolecty: Flowers of 1 plant species visited Oligolecty: Flowers of few plant species visited Polylecty: Flowers of many plant species visited Pollination syndromes Disclaimer: We make broad generalizations and
exceptions exist to most statements! Pollination syndromes Bee pollination Bees:
intelligent, agile good eyesight (including UV light) good smellers day-active Halictid bee Leafcutter bee Bumble bee
Pollination syndromes Bee flowers: Colorful (not red) Landing platform: where bee lands on flower Often nectar guides: patterns help bee orient Petals in visible light
(top) and UV (bottom) Pollination syndromes Moth pollination Moths:
Poor vision (nocturnal) Excellent smellers Long coiled tongue Some (hawkmoths) hover Pollination syndromes Moth pollination Moth-pollinated flowers
Open night Sweet fragrance White/light colored Nectar in tube Nectar spur story
Pollination syndromes Angraecum orchid (Madagascar) Nectar spur almost 1 foot long! Pollination syndromes Angraecum orchid from Madagascar.
Nectar spur almost 1 foot long! Tongue Pollination syndromes Tongue Magazine, Gene Simmons fans. Family Guy: Kiss saves Santa
Gene Simmons from KISS Biotic Pollination Mutualism: (+,+) interaction Do cheaters prosper?? Sometimes.. Pollination syndromes
Flesh fly pollination Lay eggs in meat Pollination syndromes Some fly-pollinated flowers No reward: flies fooled. Stapelia flower
Pollination syndromes Sexual mimics: Males attempt to mate (pseudocopulation) No reward supplied A male wasp mating with an Ophrys flower (how embarrassing...)
Pollination syndromes Another trick flower Grass pink orchid (Calopogon): pitcher plant bogs SE US Fake stamens on labellum Cattleya orchid (flower made right side up)
Calopogon orchid (flower made upside down!) Biotic Pollination Do cheaters prosper?? Floral robbers! Cool robbers Biotic Pollination
Floral Robber: Remove rewards (nectar, pollen) but do not pollinate Ex, snapdragon Is robbing bad for plant? Biotic Pollination Do cheaters prosper?? Yucca moth story
Yucca: Agave family Ex, Yucca filamentosa Biotic Pollination Pollination by yucca moth: Behavior Question: What do you call a female yucca moth? Biotic Pollination
Question: What do you call a female yucca moth? A pistil-packing momma. Granny Glock Biotic Pollination What if moth cheats (lays too many eggs?)
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