Political Culture & Political Ideologies

Political Culture & Political Ideologies

Political Culture & Political Ideologies Types of Political Culture Political Ideology Introduction Historic evolution of political traditions shape a countrys concept of who has authority to rule, who is legitimate power Evolution can be gradual (UK) or forced (Iran) Political Culture: collection of political beliefs, values, practices and institutions If society values individualism then the govt will generally reflect that value If a govt doesnt value basic political values of the

people, it will have difficulty remaining viable Intro cont Social capital: amount of reciprocity and trust that exists among citizens, and between citizens and state Societies w/ low amounts of social capital may be more inclined toward authoritarianism and anti-individual govts Some argue that Islam is incompatible with democracy because they emphasize subservience On other hand, democracy has flourished in India, South Africa and Turkey

Types of Political Culture Consensus political culture: Citizens may disagree on some political processes, but agree on how decisions are made or how problems are solved By and large, consensus political culture accepts both legitimacy or the regime & solutions to major problems Conflictual political culture: Citizens are sharply divided, often on legitimacy and how to solve problems Hard to come to conclusions when citizens agree or disagree on basics like capitalism v. communism Religious differences may also threaten the legitimacy or stability of a regime Political subcultures may arise; divisions will be so deep that govt will struggle to function properly

Political Ideologies Political ideologies: political culture shapes political ideologies; ideologies are sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of govt & politics Liberalism Emphasis on individual political and economic freedom Not the stereotype that liberalism has in the U.S. Liberalism is the broad ideology in many democratized countries Liberals seek to:

Freedom for all people Freedom of speech Freedom of religion Freedom of association

People also have right to disagree with govt decisions and leaders English riots PM Camerons speech on English riots PM Cameron on police powers during the English riots English response to riots Political Ideologies Communism Technically speaking- equality is valued over freedom Liberal democracies value equal opportunity but tolerate inequality in society and economy Communists: reject the notion that personal freedom equals prosperity argue that liberal democracies re created by the wealthy to protect the wealthy

Advocate a takeover of all resources by the state in order to eliminate inequalities and exploitation Argue that private ownership should be abolished and needs of state are more important than society as a whole Political Ideologies Socialism: Shares value of equality with communism but influenced by liberal value of freedom Accepts and promotes private property/ownership and free market believe the state has a strong role to play in regulating economy and providing benefits to the public Benefits ensure some measure of equality

Political Ideologies Fascism: Confused w/ communism because both devalue the idea of individual freedom Fascism rejects the value of equality, instead people exist in degrees of inferiority and superiority State has the right and responsibility to mold the society and economy The regime is authoritarian and can determine who is superior and who is inferior Political Ideologies

Religions: Important to group identity Religion serves as a basis for interest groups and volunteer associations within society Britain has an official religion, but their society is largely secularized- religious and political leaders are not the same Iran bases its political system on Shia Islam China has suppressed religious movements In Nigeria sharia Law is legal in the Muslim, but not in the Christian south.

Conclusions No matter how we categorize political cultures, they are constantly changing Political values and beliefs tend to endure and typically political culture has shaped political systems Political ideologies also play the key role in shaping political culture

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