History of Floral Design Why is it important?

History of Floral Design Why is it important?

History of Floral Design Why is it important? To create arrangements with the feel of another time and place. To harmonize your arrangements with the time period of the room or building. Floral artists of today inherit the floral art of the ages. The art of floral design has a rich worldwide history

The art of arranging flowers goes back to ancient cultures We can learn a great deal from the past. It is exciting to learn the ways flowers were used or arranged by different groups of people during different time periods. The Different Historical Periods

Ancient Civilizations European Oriental American Modern ANCIENT CIVALIZATIONS

Floral Design in Ancient Civilizations 2800 B.C. 600 A.D. Egyptian Greek Roman Byzantine EGYPTIAN PERIOD

2800 B.C. 28 B.C. Egyptian Period: Containers Egyptians favored wide-mouthed containers Containers were often made from pottery, gold, slate, or polished alabaster Farrence -- Type of glazed earthenware from Italy that was often used in containers Egyptian Period: Design

Characteristics Common types of designs were chaplets, wreaths, garlands Designs were typically orderly with alternating patterns of flowers Dominant colors were red, yellow, and blue Egyptian Period: Flowers

Acacia Morning Glory Gladiolas Poppy

Jasmine Lotus** Lily Rose

Lupine ** The lotus flower (water lily) was the flower of the Egyptian Goddess, Isis, and was considered sacred Egyptian Period: Foliage & Fruit Ivy

Olives Laurel Papyrus

Oleander Palm Figs

Plums Grapes Peaches GREEK PERIOD 600 B.C. 146 B.C.

Greek Period: Containers Flower petals were often scattered on the ground during ceremonies Design types often used were wreaths and garlands The cornucopia was first introduced during

this era Greek Period: Containers Very few vases were made solely for the purpose of holding flowers. Instead, flower petals were often scattered on the ground during ceremonies Design types often used were wreaths and garlands

The cornucopia was first introduced during this era, known as the horn of plenty. Greek Period: Flowers Crocus: (saffron spice)** ** Greek red saffron or "Crocus", a pure product of the Greek land, considered to be the best in the world.

A precious spice, adds an exquisite flavor and color to food and drinks. It is also used in distilleries, dairy products and in numerous other applications. Daisy: Honeysuckle: is Greek Period: Foliage Herbs

Ivy Herbs: Greece produces some of the most exquisite spices, herbs and aromatic plants in the world. The most renowned of them are:

Oregano Mountain Tea Sage Rosemary Basil Dill

Oak Laurel Greek Period: Fruit Berries In the background are thirty two leaves and

twenty berries, representative of the 32 permanent teeth and twenty children's teeth. Olive Acorns

Grapes The first cultivation of the olive tree worldwide took place in Greece, and more specific in Crete. The olive tree is inextricably linked with Greek history, culture and life, as is olive oil,

the product of its fruit, which the Greeks refer to simply as "oil". ROMAN PERIOD 28 B.C. to 325 A.D. Roman Period

Often used heavy & elaborate wreaths Used fragrant flowers with bright colors First use of natural bouquets Rose blossoms and petals were scattered lavishly on banquet tables, streets, and lakes during festivals and ceremonies

BYZANTINE PERIOD 320 A.D. 600 A.D. Byzantine Period Used symmetrical tree-like compositions Cones and Spiral designs Changed construction of garlands to be narrow bands of flowers or fruit alternated with foliage

EUROPEAN Floral Designs in European Periods Middle Ages Renaissance Baroque French English-Georgian Victorian

MIDDLE AGES 476 A.D. - 1450 A.D. Middle Ages Very little is known about floral art in this period Fragrant flowers were highly favored for strewing on the ground, freshening the air, and making wreaths/garlands

RENAISSANCE 1400 A.D. 1600 A.D. Renaissance Period in Europe after Middle Ages Paintings from this period often show vases of flowers because flowers had great symbolism ex: The rose symbolized sacred or profane love

ex: A white lily symbolized chastity and fertility Renaissance: Design Styles Single white lily placed in a jug is typical Flowers arranged in vases so that only blossoms were visible Massed, symmetrically

stiff, compact arrangements common Bright colors and forms of flowers were used as focus Renaissance: Containers Elaborate metal containers with well formed bases, stems, necks, & handles

popular Some containers were made especially for flowers (ex: holes in a removable lid to hold flowers in place) Urns made of pottery, marble, bronze, or glass Renaissance: Flowers

Anemone Campanula Carnations Iris

Poppy Rose

Lily Lily of the Valley Marigold Narcissus Pansy Violets Renaissance: Foliage

Boxwood Cones Fruit Ivy

Laurel Myrtle Olive Vegetables BAROQUE and DUTCH FLEMISH

1600 A.D. - 1775 A.D. Baroque Period Era following the Renaissance in Europe Art is no longer just for the church or nobility, it is now accessible to the middle class Paintings show arrangements in everyday settings Many interiors were overdecorated and gaudy Designs became more creative and expressive

Baroque Period: Containers Massive and sturdy Metal and stone urns Chinese and Japanese vases, bowls, and flasks Baroque Period: Flowers

Carnations Cyclamen Foxglove Iris Larkspur

Lilies Marigolds Roses

Sunflowers Snowball Tulips Baroque Period: Foliage & Accessories

Leaves of flowers Coleus Olive Bold leaves

Fruits/vegetables Birds nests Shells Insects Nuts, berries FRENCH 1600 A.D. 1700 A.D.

French Period (17th & 18th century France) Also known as the Grand Era Associated with the courtly life Emphasis was on classic design, refinement, and elegance

Designs were often fan shaped and massed French Period: Containers Elegant and ornate Goblets and vases made of glass, ceramic, or porcelain Classic urns

French Period: Flowers & Foliage

Acacia Aster Carnation Ferns Hyacinth Larkspur Lilacs

Lilies Marigolds Pansy Poppy Roses

Tulips ENGLISH - GEORGIAN 1714 A.D. - 1760 A.D. English-Georgian Period (18th century England) Named for English Kings George I, II, & III Fragrance was very important in flower selection because it was thought to rid disease

English created the nosegay to safeguard from illness Flowers became part of fashion in hair, around necks, and in dcolletage Arrangements were formal & symmetrical Often used bough pots English-Georgian: Containers

Wedgwood Posy-holder vases Urns made of pewter, sliver, or ceramics Ceramic wall pockets Enclosed bricks English-Georgian: Flowers

Used the same as the Baroque period but also included: Clover Geraniums Hibiscus

Passion Flower Phlox Snowdrop Veronica VICTORIAN 1837 A.D. 1901 A.D. Victorian Era

Named for Queen Victoria who reigned in England from 1837 to 1901 Victorian interiors were lavishly decorated in heavy colors and patterns Time of great enthusiasm about flowers; floral design was taught and recognized as art

First attempt to establish rules for floral arranging Victorian Era: Design Characteristics Described as grouping large masses of flowers, foliage, and grasses together to create a design with no

center of interest Usually round or oval shaped arrangements Victorian Era: Containers Metal, porcelain, ceramic, glass, and alabaster were popular materials Wall pockets Tussie-mussie holders Vases of various shapes

Urns & jugs Victorian Era: Flowers

Bleeding Heart Camellias Carnations Dahlia Gardenia Hydrangea

Lilies Poppies Roses Sweet Pea Tulips Violets

Victorian Era: Foliage & Accessories Ferns Grasses Dried Flowers Figurines Stuffed birds, butterflies

Victorian greeting cards ORIENTAL INFLUENCE Oriental Influence in Floral Design Oriental influence placed emphasis on the individual form, texture, and color of plant material

Felt it was improper to place flowers carelessly on the altar. Created symbolic arrangements Bright colors were favored. Chinese vs. Japanese Style Chinese style is less stylized Japanese style is very formal and follows strict rules of construction Ikebana

American Styles of Floral Design Early American Colonial Neoclassic American Victorian Early American Style Focused on natural styles and arrangements

Wildflowers, grains, and grasses were often placed in everyday jugs and pitchers to make an arrangement COLONIAL 1714 A.D. 1780 A.D. Colonial Style Typical arrangements were massed, rounded, and fan shaped bouquets

Casual, open designs were popular NEOCLASSICISM FEDERAL AND GREEK REVIVAL 1790 A.D. 1825 A.D. Neoclassic Style Covered two time periods Federal Period 1790 - 1825

Greek Period 1825 - 1845 Designs were typically broken from English tradition and were influenced by the French Roses, geraniums, and trailing ivy were popular plant materials

AMERICAN VICTORIAN 1845 A.D. 1900 A.D. American Victorian Also called the Romantic era Designs copied European Victorian styles Epergnes were popular containers MODERN

Modern Styles of Floral Design Art Nouveau Art Deco Free Form Expression Geometric Mass Design ART NOVEAU 1890 A.D. 1910 A.D. Art Nouveau Period

Style was based on curvilinear lines and often patterned after nature in the shape of plants or flowers Containers were curving and asymmetrical ART DECO 1920s & 1930s Art Deco Period: Blending of influences including ancient

Egyptian, Jazz age, and industrial age Characterized by strong geometric lines and patterns The style reemerged in the 1960s FREE FORM EXPRESSION 1950 1959 A.D. Free Form Expression Arrangements were more expressive with

feeling of movement and freedom Textural differences between design materials were emphasized GEOMETRIC MASS 1960-1975 A.D. Geometric Mass Design Tight, geometric bouquets were common Arrangements combined mass and line into

stiff patterns Compote containers were commonly used Review What are some types of flowers and foliage common to all periods of floral design? Why is it important to study the history of floral design? What are some reasons for changing design styles across time?

How did European traditions influence American design?

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