(General Soil ) (361201) . 5 (Soil Organisms)

(General Soil ) (361201) .   5 (Soil Organisms)

(General Soil ) (361201) . 5 (Soil Organisms) (Soil Organisms)

1. (plant flora)

2. (animal fauna) - (protozoa) (millipedes)

- (nematode) - 1) 2) (silt) 3)

3. (soil microorganisms) 2 1) heterotroph

( ( (.)

1 ) ( / ) ) 10131014 10121013 108-109 10101011 105-106 107-108

3003,000 3003,000 5005,000 1) (bacteria) 2) (actinomycetes)

4) (algae) (protozoa) (virus)

3 - photoautotroph Nostoc Anabaena Gloeothece

2 1) 2) pH

1. (food) 5 1) (energy source) - - chemoautotroph

2) (carbon source) - autotroph CO2 - heterotroph

Photoauto troph

CO2 Photohete rotroph purple nonsulfur green

nonsulfur bacteria purple sulfur green sulfur bacteria, 3) (electron acceptor)

(e-) ATP - Aerobic respiration redox potential

Redox potential1/ pH 7 (mV) O2+ e- Aerobic respiration +820 , ,

Denitrificat ion +420 Pseudomonas Mn4+ + eMn3+ Manganese reduction

+410 Bacillus O.M. + eOrganic acids 1/ Fermentati on +400 Clostridium H 2O

NO3- + e- N2 Redox potential Pseudomonas Fe3+ + eIron -180 2+ Fe reduction

4) (mineral) C, H O - N, S P - (N) - (S) cysteine methionine biotin thiamine - (Mg) cofactor

cytochrome - (Fe) - Co, Mo, Cu, Mn, Ni Zn - - (Si) - (V) Mo :

: / Rhizobium (% ) (% ) C 50 45 O 20 44

N 12 1-2 H 8 6 P 1

0.2 S 1 0.2 K 1 1 Na

1 0.2 Ca 0.5 0.3 Mg 0.5 0.3

Cl 0.5 0.1 5) growth factor - - purines pyrimidines

- 2. (soil environment) 1) (soil aeration) O2 redox potential 2) (soil moisture) 3) (soil temperature)

1. 2. 1) Immobilization

NH4+, NO3-, H2PO4-, SO42-, K+ Ca2+ 2) Oxidation NH4+ 3. (nitrogen fixation) ,

nitrogenes O2 4. (mycorrhiza) symbiosis

mycorrhiza) 5.

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