Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Section 1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table Section 1: Development of the Modern Periodic Table The periodic table evolved over time as scientists discovered more useful ways to compare and organize the elements. K W L
What I Know What I Want to Find Out What I Learned The History of the Periodic Table http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPnwBIT SmgU In 1750, only 17 elements were known. As the rate of discovery increased, so did the need to organize the elements In 1789 Antoine Lavoisier grouped the known elements into metals, nonmetals, gases, and
earths. Development of the Periodic Table In the 1700s, Lavoisier compiled a list of all the known elements of the time. Development of the Modern Periodic Table Development of the Periodic Table The 1800s brought large amounts of information and scientists needed a way to organize knowledge about elements.
John Newlands proposed an arrangement where elements were ordered by increasing atomic mass. Development of the Modern Periodic Table Development of the Periodic Table Newlands noticed when the elements were arranged by increasing atomic mass, their properties repeated every eighth element. Development of the Modern Periodic Table
Development of the Periodic Table Meyer and Mendeleev both demonstrated a connection between atomic mass and elemental properties. Moseley rearranged the table by increasing atomic number, and resulted in a clear periodic pattern. Periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number is
called periodic law. Development of the Modern Periodic Table Mendeleevs Periodic Table Medeleev made flash cards of the 63 known elements. (1863) On each card he put the name of the element, mass, and properties. When he lined the cards up in order of increasing mass, a pattern emerged. Mendeleev arranged the elements into row in order of increasing mass so that elements with similar properties were in the same column. A deck of cards can be divided into four suitsdiamonds, spades, hearts, and clubs. In one version of solitaire, a player must produce an
arrangement in which each suit is ordered from ace to king. This arrangement is a model for Mendeleev's periodic table. Periodic Table- Arrangement of elements in columns, based on a set of properties that repeat from row to row. Mendeleevs Prediction He could not make a complete table because many of the elements had not yet been discovered. He had to leave spaces for those elements. Eka-Aluminum one space below Al. He predicted it would be a soft metal with a low m.p. and a density of 5.9 g/cm3 The close match between Mendeleevs prediction and the actual properties of new elements showed how useful the periodic table could
be. Gallium was discovered in 1875. Its a soft metal, m.p. is 29.7 C, and has a density of 5.91 g/cm3 Heat from a person's hand can melt gallium. In some traffic signals, there are tiny light emitting diodes (LEDs) that contain a compound of gallium Mendeleevs Periodic Table How is the table organized? Elements are arranged in order of increasing mass. What do the long dashes represent? They represent undiscovered elements. Why are masses listed with some of the dashes, but
not with all of them? He was able to predict properties for some unknown elements based on the properties of neighboring elements. Development of the Modern Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table The modern periodic table contains boxes that contain the element's name, symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass. Development of the Modern Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table
Columns of elements are called groups. Rows of elements are called periods. Elements in groups 1,2, and 1318 possess a wide variety of chemical and physical properties and are called the representative elements.
Elements in groups 312 are known as the transition metals. Development of the Modern Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table Elements are classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Metals are elements that are generally shiny when smooth and clean, solid at room temperature, and good conductors of heat and electricity.
Alkali metals are all the elements in group 1 except hydrogen, and are very reactive. Alkaline earth metals are in group 2, and are also highly reactive. Development of the Modern Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table The transition elements are divided into transition metals and inner transition metals.
The two sets of inner transition metals are called the lanthanide series and actinide series and are located at the bottom of the periodic table. Development of the Modern Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table Nonmetals are elements that are generally gases or brittle, dulllooking solids, and poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Group 17 is composed of highly reactive elements called halogens. Group 18 gases are extremely unreactive and commonly called noble gases. Metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, have physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals. Development of the Modern Periodic Table Staircase
Left side is metals: Elements to the left of the semi-metal line on the periodic table are malleable (can be hammered into a shape), ductile (can be stretched into a wire) and good conductors of heat and electricity. These elements tend to lose electrons to form cations. Right side is nonmetals: Elements to the right of the semi-metal line on the periodic table (and hydrogen) are brittle and insulators of heat and electricity. These elements tend to gain electrons to form anions or share electrons as bonds to form molecules. On the steps is metaloids The Modern Periodic Table Development of the Modern Periodic Table "The Elements"
Essential Questions How was the periodic table developed? What are the key features of the periodic table? Development of the Modern Periodic Table Section 2 Classification of the Elements
The PT Song Section 2: Classification of the Elements Elements are organized into different blocks in the periodic table according to their electron configurations. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Organizing the Elements by Electron Configuration
Recall electrons in the highest principal energy level are called valence electrons. All group 1 elements have one valence electron. Classification of the Elements Organizing the Elements by Electron Configuration Group 2 elements have two valence electrons. The number of valence electrons for
elements in groups 1318 is ten less than their group number. The energy level of an elements valence electrons indicates the period on the periodic table in which it is found. Classification of the Elements The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements The shape of the periodic table becomes clear if it is divided into
blocks representing the atoms energy sublevel being filled with valence electrons. Classification of the Elements The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements s-block elements consist of group 1 and 2, and the element helium. Group 1 elements have a partially filled s orbital with one electron.
Group 2 elements have a completely filled s orbital with two electrons. Classification of the Elements The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements Groups 1318 fill the p orbitals. In group 18, both the s and p orbitals of the periods principal energy level are completely filled. Classification of the Elements The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements
The d-block contains the transition metals and is the largest block. There are exceptions, but d-block elements usually have filled outermost s orbitals, and filled or partially filled d orbitals. The five d orbitals can hold 10 electrons, so the d-block spans ten groups on the periodic table. Classification of the Elements The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements
The f-block contains the inner transition metals. f-block elements have filled or partially filled outermost s orbitals and filled or partially filled 4f and 5f orbitals. The 7f orbitals hold 14 electrons, and the inner transition metals span 14 groups. Classification of the Elements Alkali Metals
Group 1A Most reactive metals Reactivity increases from the top to the bottom. So reactive many are kept under oil to prevent reacting with water or oxygen. One Valence Electron Found in nature only in a compound. Form +1 ions because they will easily give up 1 electron for stability.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ft4E1eCUItI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eCk0lYB_8c0 Element Symbol Hyperlin k Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassiu K m Rubidiu Rb m Cesium Cs Franciu Fr m
Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2A Have 2 Valence Electrons Harder than the metals in 1A. Form +2 Ions because they easily give up 2 electrons for stability. Magnesium used in photosynthesis within the chlorophyll. Calcium used in teeth and
bone. Element Barium Ba Radium Ra http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2ZPrg9IVEo
Symbol Hyperlin k Beryllium Be Magnesiu Mg m Calcium Ca Strontium Sr Boron Family Group 3A Have 3 Valence electrons Form +3 Ions because they easily give up 3 electrons for stability.
1 metalloid (Boron) Six metals Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the Earths crust. People are encouraged to recycle aluminum because it doesnt take that much energy to do so. Element Boron Aluminu m Gallium
Indium Thallium Ununtriu m Symbol Hyperlin k B Al Ga In Tl Uut Carbon Family
Group 4A Have 4 Valence Electrons Form +/- 4 Ions because it will easily lose or gain 4 electrons for stability. 1 Nonmetal (Carbon) 2 Metalloids 3 Metals Metallic nature increases from top to bottom. With the exception of water, most of the compounds in your body contain carbon. Silicon is the second most abundant metal in the earths crust.
Element Symbol Hyperlin k C Si Ge Carbon Silicon Germaniu m Tin Sn Lead
Pb Ununquadi Uuq um Nitrogen Family Group 5A Have 5 Valence Electrons Forms -3 Ions because it will easily gain 3 electrons for stability. 2 nonmetals 2 metalloids 2 Metals Nitrogen and Phosphorus are used in fertilizers.
Element Nitrogen Symbol Hyperli nk N Phosphorus P Arsenic
As Antimony Sb Bismuth Bi Ununpentiu m Uup Oxygen Family
Group 6A Have 6 Valence Electrons Forms -2 Ions because it will easily gain 2 electrons for stability. 3 nonmetals 2 metalloids 1 metal Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earths Crust. Ozone is another from of oxygen. At ground level it can irritate your eyes and lungs. At higher levels it absorbs harmful radiation from the sun. Element
Oxygen Symbol Hyperlin k O Sulfur S Selenium Se
Tellurium Te Polonium Po Ununhexi um Uuh Halogens Group 7A Element
Have 7 Valence electrons Form -1 Ions because it will easily gain 1 electron for stability. Fluorine Most reactive nonmetals increase from bottom to top. Chlorine Known as Salt Formers Bromine 5 nonmetals Iodine 1 Unknown Fluorine is the most reactive. Astatine React easily with most metals. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2ogMUDBaf4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP0U5rGWqdg Symbol Hyperli nk F Cl Br I At Ununspeti Uus um
Noble Gases Group 8A 8 Valence Electrons Helium is the exception with only 2 valence electrons. Extremely Un-reactive (Do not form Ions) Odorless and colorless. Used in light bulbs. All are used in neon lights except argon. Have the most stable electron configuration. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLrofyj6a2s
Element Symbo l Hyperl ink Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon
Xe Radon Rn Ununoctiu Uuo m Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table SOLVE FOR THE UNKNOWN Use with Example Problem 1. Problem Strontium, which is used to produce red fireworks, has an electron
configuration of [Kr]5s2. Without using the periodic table, determine the group, period, and block of strontium. Response The s2 indicates the strontiums valence electrons fill the s sublevel. Thus, strontium is in group 2 of the s-block. ANALYZE THE PROBLEM You are given the electron configuration of strontium. KNOWN
UNKNOWN Electron configuration = [Kr]5s2 Group = ? Period = ? Block = ? For representative elements, the number of valence electrons can indicate the group number. The number of the highest energy level indicates the
period number. The 5 is 5s2 indicates that strontium in period 5. EVALUATEisTHE ANSWER The relationships between electron configuration and position on the periodic table have been correctly applied. Classification of the Elements Essential Questions
Why do elements in the same group have similar properties? Based on their electron configurations, what are the four blocks of the periodic table? Classification of the Elements Section 3 Periodic Trends Section 3: Periodic Trends
Trends among elements in the periodic table include their sizes and their abilities to lose or attract electrons. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Periodic Table Crash Course http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RRVV4 Diomg
Atomic Radius Atomic size is a periodic trend influenced by electron configuration. For metals, atomic radius is half the distance between adjacent nuclei in a crystal of the element. Periodic Trends
Atomic Radius For elements that occur as molecules, the atomic radius is half the distance between nuclei of identical atoms that are chemically bonded together. Periodic Trends Atomic Radius Atomic radius generally decreases from left to right, caused by increasing positive charge in the nucleus.
Valence electrons are not shielded from the increasing nuclear charge because no additional electrons come between the nucleus and the valence electrons. Atomic radius generally increases as you move down a group. The outermost orbital size increases down a group, making the atom larger.
Periodic Trends Atomic Radius Periodic Trends Interpret Trends in Atomic Radii Use with Example Problem 2. Problem SOLVE FOR THE UNKNOWN Determine the periods.
Which has the largest atomic radius: carbon (C), fluorine (F), beryllium (Be), or lithium (Li Explain your answer in terms of trends in atomic radii. From the periodic table, all the elements are found to be in period 2. Response Ordering the elements from left-toright across the period yields: Li, Be, C, and F. ANALYZE THE PROBLEM You are given four elements. First,
determine the groups and periods the elements occupy. Then apply the general trends in atomic radii to determine which has the largest atomic radius. Apply the trend of decreasing radii across a period. The first element in period 2, lithium, has the largest radius. EVALUATE THE ANSWER The period trend in atomic radii has been correctly applied. Checking
radii values in Figure 11 (slide 7) verifies the answer. Periodic Trends Ionic Radius An ion is an atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge. When atoms lose electrons and form positively charged ions, they always become smaller for two reasons: 1.
The loss of a valence electron can leave an empty outer orbital, resulting in a smaller radius. 2. Electrostatic repulsion decreases allowing the electrons to be pulled closer to the nucleus. Periodic Trends Ionic Radius When atoms gain electrons, they can become larger, because the addition of an electron increases electrostatic repulsion.
Periodic Trends Ionic Radius The ionic radii of positive ions generally decrease from left to right. The ionic radii of negative ions generally decrease from left to right, beginning with group 15 or 16. Both positive and negative ions increase in size moving
down a group. Periodic Trends Ionic Radius Periodic Trends Ionization Energy Ionization energy is defined as the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom.
The energy required to remove the first electron is called the first ionization energy. Periodic Trends Ionization Energy Periodic Trends Ionization Energy Removing the second electron requires more energy, and is called the second ionization energy.
Each successive ionization requires more energy, but it is not a steady increase. Periodic Trends Ionization Energy First ionization energy increases from left to right across a period. First ionization energy decreases down a group because atomic size increases and less energy is required to remove an electron farther from the nucleus.
Periodic Trends Ionization Energy The ionization at which the large increase in energy occurs is related to the number of valence electrons. The octet rule states that atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons.
The octet rule is useful for predicting what types of ions an element is likely to form. Periodic Trends Electronegativity The electronegativity of an element indicates its relative ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond.
Electronegativity decreases down a group and increases left to right across a period. Periodic Trends Patterns on the Periodic Table 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Atomic # L to R. Atomic mass L to R. Energy level and orbitals in rows from T to B. (Physical Properties) metals metalloids nonmetals from L to R. Columns atomic mass from T to B. Columns are based on chemical properties (reactivity). Valence Electrons from L to R. Most reactive metals are on the left side. Most reactive non-metals are on the right side. Periodic Table Trends Rap Essential Questions
What are the period and group trends of different properties? How are period and group trends in atomic radii related to electron configuration? Periodic Trends
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