Microsoft PowerPoint - Gross anatomy of the urinary system
Gross Anatomy of the Urinary System Lecture Objectives Overview of the urinary system. Describe the external and internal anatomical structure of the kidney. Describe the anatomical structure of the ureter and its location in the body. Describe the structure of the urinary bladder and its relations to the peritoneum. Discuss the anatomical structure of urethra and the difference between males and females. Understand the blood supply, venous drainage and lymphatics of the urinary system. Discuss the innervation of different parts of the urinary system, with special attention to the nervous control of
urinary bladder. Urinary Tract Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra Urine flows from each kidney, down its ureter to the bladder and to the outside via the urethra Filter the blood and return most of water and solutes to the bloodstream Overview of Kidney Functions
Regulation of blood ionic composition Na+, K+, Ca+2, Cl and phosphate ions Regulation of blood pH, osmolarity & glucose Regulation of blood volume conserving or eliminating water Regulation of blood pressure secreting the enzyme renin adjusting renal resistance Release of erythropoietin & calcitriol Excretion of wastes & foreign substances Kidneys: Shape & Location Paired kidney bean shaped organ
4 5 in long, 2 3 in wide, 1 in thick Found on the upper part of the posterior abdominal wall retroperitoneal along with adrenal glands & ureters Protected by 11th & 12th ribs with right kidney at a lower level Right kidney could be palpable External Anatomy of Kidney Superior & inferior poles Lower pole of R. kidney could be palpable
Lateral border Medial border 3 fingers from midline Hilum Anterior and posterior libs Content Renal v. renal aa. ureter renal a. (VAUA, from front to back)) Sympathetic fibers and lymph vessels Renal sinus cavity internal to the hilum Content Same as hilum + drainage system
Kidney Coverings Renal capsule (fibrous capsule) = transparent membrane maintains organ shape Perirenal fat = helps protect from trauma Renal fascia = dense, irregular connective tissue that holds against back body wall Encloses the kidney & the suprarenal gland Continuous with fascia transversalis Pararenal fat (paranephric fat) = protection Part of retroperitoneal fat Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys Parenchyma of kidney renal cortex = superficial layer of kidney renal medulla
inner portion consisting of 8 18 cone shaped renal pyramids separated by renal columns renal papilla point toward center of kidney Apex of renal pyramid Drainage system fills renal sinus cavity minor calyces cuplike structure collect urine from the papillary ducts of the papilla One minor calyx for each renal papilla minor calyces empty into major calyces Each major calyx empties 2 3 minor calyces Major calyces empty into the renal pelvis, which empties
into the ureter Internal Anatomy of Kidney What is the difference between renal hilus & renal sinus? Outline a major calyx & the border between cortex & medulla. Kidney blood Blood supplysupply Renal aa. aorta L2 Renal vv. IVC Lymph drainage Lateral aortic lymph
Kidney Surface Anatomy Kidneys From T12 L3 spines Right kidney at a lower level Inferior pole of R. kidney could be palpable at lumbar region Moves about 1 in up and down during respiration Hilum Anteriorly at transpyloric line (L1) Posteriorly three fingers from midline
Ureters 10 to 12 in long Varies in diameter from 1 10 mm Extends from renal pelvis to bladder Retroperitoneal Enters posterior wall of bladder Three Constrictions (arrows)
At junction with renal pelvis At crossing the pelvic brim At entering the urinary bladder (oblique entrance) Physiological valve only bladder wall compresses ureteral opening as it expands during filling flow results from peristalsis, gravity & hydrostatic pressure Ureters: Relations Anteriorly Viscera, BVs,
mesentery Posteriorly Lumbar transverse processes, psoas m., bifurcation of common iliac a. Ureters Blood supply Upper end renal vs. Middle part gonadal vs. Lower end superior vesical vs. Lymph drainage
Lateral aortic nodes & iliac nodes Nerve supply Renal & gonadal plexuses in abdomen Hypogastric plexus in pelvis Afferents L1 L2 segments Urinary Bladder Hollow, distensible muscular organ with capacity of about 500 ml
In adults it is located in the pelvis behind the pubic symphysis Upon distention, the superior surface extend to the abdomen In infancy bladder have higher position Empty bladder lies within the abdomen Urinary Bladder Shape and surfaces It is pyramidal in shape Apex anteriorly Median umbilical ligament
Base (posterior surface) triangular in shape Superolateral angles Ureteral openings Inferior angle Urethral opening Superior surface Covered by peritoneum Inferolateral surfaces Faces the pubic symphysis & lateral pelvic wall Neck inferiorly Puboprostatic ligaments (male) Pubovesical ligament (female)
Urinary Bladder: Internal Structure Mucus membrane folds Disappear on distention Trigone is the mucus membrane of the bladder base Always smooth flat area Bordered by 2 ureteral openings (above) & urethral opening (below) Interureteric crest (superiorly) Uvula vesicae (in male) Elevation behind the urethral opening Caused by the median lobe of the prostate Detrusor muscle (bladder smooth m.)
Three layers Inner & outer longitudinal Middle circular At neck sphincter vesicae (internal urethral sphincter) Urinary Bladder Relations in Male Anteriorly abdominal wall, retropubic pad of fat & pubic symphysis Laterally obturator internus & levator anai mm. Inferiorly prostate Superiorly peritoneal cavity & parts of intestine
Posteriorly rectovesical pouch, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, rectovesical fascia & rectum Urinary Bladder Relations in Female Anteriorly abdominal wall, retropubic pad of fat & pubic symphysis Laterally obturator internus & levator anai mm. Inferiorly urogenital diaphragm Superiorly uterovesical pouch & uterus Posteriorly vagina
Urinary Bladder Blood supply Superior and Inferior vesical aa. internal iliac a. Vesical venous plexus prostatic venous plexus internal iliac v. Lymphatics Internal & external iliac nodes Urinary Bladder Nerve supply Inferior hypogastric plexus Sympathetic: L1 L2 ganglia (sympathetic trunk)
hypogastric plexus Contraction of sphincter vesicae Parasympathetic: S2 S4 pelvic splanchnic nn. Contraction of detrusor m. Afferent fibers Parasympathetic (most) S2 S4 segments Sympathetic (some) L1 L2 segments Female Urethra Length of 1.5 in.
Traverse the sphincter urethrae in the urogenital diaphragm Internal urethral orifice at bladder neck External urethral orifice (meatus) at the vestibule 1 in. posterior to clitoris & anterior to vaginal opening On sides has openings of the paraurethral glands Male Urethra Length 8 in. from bladder neck to glans penis Parts Prostatic urethra (1.25 in.) widest
part Urethral crest Prostatic utricle On both sides has the openings of ejaculatory ducts Prostatic sinus Membranous urethra (0.5 in. in urogenital diaphragm Penile urethra (6 in.) narrowest part Traverse the pulp & corpus spongiosum of the penis Receives the bulbourethral ducts
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