Memory - Mans

Memory - Mans

M m e o y r Memory

by Dr, Warda Abo-Elez Professor Of psychiatry Memory Process Memory process can be divided into stages for the purpose of . .understanding sensory input or stimulus from the environment. The input is throughs ensory channels, like vision, hearing or touch and is . held briefly (seconds) in a sensory register

short-term memory (STM) store where it is held for 20-30 -long Long term memory store (LTM) where it is organized . in categories and stored for years . Memory is viewed by cognitive theorist as ant. , Memory is divided into three stages , Encoding

Storage Retrieval . This could be compared with your expe-rience of attending a particular class. You hear lecture and make notes that is you encode the lecture, then the notes are stored in some file using date or topic name. When later this information is required you retrieve by searching that particular file by its topic name. Thus any memory system must perform three functions

a. Inputallow information to be fed into the system b. Storageto maintain information .c. Retrievalto access information when required Memory Systems . There are at least three distinct ways of classifying memory :These are based on Neurological, theory: memory is divided into verbal and-1 . non-verbal

Experimental model, memory is divided into :-Sensory-2 . memory, short-term memory and long- term memory Clinical practice, memory can be divided into remote,-3 . recent and immediate Sensory Memory . Sensory memory is the first stop of an incoming stimulus All sensory modalities (visual and auditory, tactile, olfactory . and kinesthetic)

.The duration of sensory memory is very short Iconic memory or visual sensory memory may , last from 250 m sec to 500 m sec echoic or auditory sensory memory from 2 to 10 se Tactual memory about 4 sec and motor memory .as long as 80 sec) kinesthetic( SHORT-TERM MEMORY Information is held; in STM store up to about 30 seconds Short-term memory has very limited storage capacity; . six to seven items can be stored at one time

With new stimulus input, the original items get erased or fade away. The storage capacity ran be increased by .chunking, i.e. combining several items . Unfamiliar items fade out faster than familiar items Working Memory Working memory is at times used as an alternative term to . STM Working memory occurs between the short time of sensory . memory and the long-term memory

.Working memory has very limited capacity Retains material for a very short duration of time, for 18 to 20 .seconds unless one tries to hold consciously Material is consciously processed and retention last as long as . it is held in attention You can understand process of working memory by recalling that you tend to remember the telephone numbers till you have to dial it, after using the number it is discarded and it is no .longer in the memory REHEARSAL

Rehearsal means repeating items of information ,silently or aloud and it helps to keep these items of information in the .center of attention . Elaborative rehearsal organizes the material and give meaning while rehearsing.. The amount of rehearsal given to items is important in the transfer of information from short-term to long term memory, the more an item is rehearsed, and the more likely it is to become part of long term memory. In elaborative rehearsal, people use strategies that give

meaning and organization to the material so that it can be .fitted in with existing organized long-term memories LONG-TERM MEMORY The storage capacity has no known limits and one can remember information for days, months, and years. Long-term memory is of two types . Procedural memory stores memory for how things are done. It is used to acquire retain and use perceptual cognitive and motor skills. like swimming, driving, giving an injection.

Declarative memory is for remembering explicit information. It is also known as fact memory. Declarative memory contains two different categories of information. Semantic Memory Contains meaning of words and concepts, rules of using these in language. Semantic memory is not easily forgotten, as the information is stored in highly organized way in logical

hierarchies , from general to specific ones. Such organization makes it possible for us to make logical inferences from the information stored in semantic memory MEMORY Contains personal experiences of long-term . memories It is a record of what has happened to us, or remembrances of past things. Episodic memory seems to be organized

with respect to certain events that happened . in our lives FORGETTING Forgetting is failure to retrieve information from long..term memory store Interference According to this explanation, what we do in the interval between .learning and recall, determines the course of forgetting . Retroactive inhibition: This is a technical name for new learning that

may interfere with material previously learned. This has been demonstrated .in experiments as following Motivated Forgetting . Repression theory holds that we forget because the retrieval of memories would be painful or unacceptable in some way to the .person .

Anxiety or guilt producing material is more .often forgotten than pleasant experiences ZEIGARNIK EFFECT Amnesias are classified under two categories: (i) .biological and (ii) psychological Biological amnesias: Forgetting could be due to any of following reasonsdiseases of the brain like senile dementia, Korsakoff syndrome,

concession from blows on head, brain damage, brain infections, tumor, stroke, temporary disturbances in the blood supply or effect of .high dose of alcohol and drug abuse Transient global amnesia: These are profound memory problem with no loss of consciousness. It comes on suddenly without any obvious cause, and it typically lasts .for only a few hours or days before memory becomes normal again Alcohol and drug abuse: These also cause amnesia, a person may have amnesia for the . events occurring while under the influence of alcohol because encoding and storage processes have been disrupted by the effects of the alcohol on the brain. Heavy drinking

over a period of years however, can result through vitamin-B deficits and other chemical imbalances, in irreversible brain damage and a pattern of symptoms known as . the Korsakoff syndrome Interograde amnesia the inability to form new memories is one of the prominent symptoms of this syndrome. Psychological amnesia: These types of amnesias occur due to psychiatric diseases where the person forgets his identity also. There may not be a .permanent loss Childhood amnesia: is due to the differences in the ways young children and older people encode and . store information

As adults, much of our memory is encoded verbally and tied into networks, or schemata, that are based . on language But the young child without language encodes memories in a nonverbal form, perhaps storing . information as images or feelings Defensive amnesia: People with defensive amnesia may forget their names, where they have come from, who their spouses are, and many other important details of their past lives. is usually considered to be

a way of protecting oneself from the guilt or anxiety that can result from intense, intolerable life situations . and conflicts Normal aging: has its problems too, but the typical forgetfulness of old age is hardly severe enough to be . called amnesia In normal aging , the memory problem, centres largely on the storage of relatively recent events; it is . anterograde in nature Methods to Improve Memory

With training, practice and motivation memory can be improved. Mnemonics . Mnemonics are devices that facilitate the learning and recall of many such forms of difficult material. One of the method is to associate whatever you want to recall with something already established in your memory bank, e.g. colors of rainbow are associated with name Roy G. BIV, i.e. Red. Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and Violet Method of Loc You visualize a scene and fit the items to be

. remembered in that scene The scene can be a street, a building with rooms, the layout of a college campus, a kitchen, or just about anything that can be visualized clearly and contains a number of discrete items in specific ..locations to serve as memory pegs PEG WORD METHOD Peg word method is another technique through which a list of items and their relative positions can be learned effectively. To establish the main

idea in your long-term memory, a well organized set of images to which the to-be remembered .items could be linked For letter systems you can establish mnemonic pegs by forming strong distinctive images of words that start with the sounds of the letter of .the alphabet In number systems, you form an image with .each number Rhyming

Rhyming can be used for learning of long list involving . numbers like the numbers 1 through 10 Making a Story Making a story in this you can fit the facts in the story .like you read in elaborative rehearsal Chunking This technique illustrates systematic ways of encoding information. If you want to remember a long list of digits, ,.e.g. 1989609065 you canbreak the numbers into chunks

Remembering Names and Faces As first steps in establishing a good memory for names and faces, we should: (i) be sure we hear the name clearly when introduced, (ii) (ii) repeat the name when acknowledging the introduction, and (iii) (iii) if the name is unusual, politely ask the new acquaintance to spell it. Here are some tips to help you to improve your

.memory Plan your study content and make a time schedule to cover. 1 .that content. Stick to this schedule firmly For academic and nonacademic activities. One can make. 2 use of methods that help us to study better for the exams and . do well make notes of important points as all the details of. 3 .information cannot be remembered. Revise these notes You can use imagery to visualize the material you are. 4 learning and give auditory stimulation by reading aloud. also read loudly. Multi-channel stimulation would improve your

.memory 5. Try to organize your material with retrieval

cues or reminders. Make a map of contents in your mind. 6. Give a feedback to yourself by testing your memory. Revise areas where you could not remember. 7. Review before examination. Try to learn but do not get anxious as you have seen high anxiety level would interfere with your remembering. 8. Give some short rest pauses between your

CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF MEMORY Measurement of memory is a complex task because a number of variables interact in recall. (i) nature of the material, (ii) (ii) the methods used for testing the recall (iii) characteristics of the individual.. THANKS

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