Making Links Themes and Ideas POWER Ozymandias The River God About a ruined statue of a powerful ruler who controlled over an ancient kingdom His sneer of cold command suggests he was a cruel leader He is arrogant King of kings However human power is significant compared to the effects of time Time can destroy whole civilisations and human achievements The River God is dangerous and strong. He has the power to drown the fools who swim in him. He is proud of the power he has
over people especially beautiful women. He uses his power recklessly POWER TO CONTROL My Last Duchess The Duke wanted to control his wife's behaviour He was jealous because he thought she flirted with other men- possessive He says he gave commands which suggests he is responsible for her death He keeps the portrait to keep control over her Medusa The narrator imagines that she has supernatural powers to kill her husband just by looking at him Her transformation gives her the
power to get revenge However she wants reassurance that she is still beautiful and fragrant from her husband- this shows he has the emotional power POWERLESS Outsider GIVE At first the narrator suggests they have control over their life because they have chosen to sleep in the doorway By the end of the poem the narrator admits they are powerless. They are on their knees to beg for help It is society who has more power bringing him tea, giving him money The Hunchback in the Park
The character in this poem is homeless and therefore has a lower status The hunchback is lonely and solitary and separated from society , compared to a dog slept at night in a dog kennel De-humanised by society DEATH grief or loss On a portrait of a deaf man Brendon Gallacher The narrator is grieving and trying to come to terms with the death of his father This poem is a tribute to the man he was Sadness is mixed with bitterness and the physical reality of the body decaying He has suffered a loss of faith
The narrator looks back to the grief she felt when her imaginary friend stopped existing Her mum reveals he didnt exist and the narrator says he died then This suggests that she never excepted he wasnt real DAMAGE The Hunchback in the park The hunchback is affected by his physical disability The physical mark of his hunchback emphasises that hes a solitary mister who is different from the rest of society He imagines a woman figure without fault who has the physical strength that he lacks Casehistory: Alison (head injury)
Alison is physically injured- she has a head injury and a damaged brain She views herself as a broken version of her former self Her injuries have caused memory loss Her damaged mind keeps forgetting that her father has died so she has to relive her grief MORAL DAMAGE- reputation The Ruined Maid Melia is morally ruined because shes become a prostitute in order to escape her life of poverty Being ruined is presented as ambiguous because of the material wealth she has gained However her riches are an illusion which hide the reality that she is now morally damaged
Horse Whisperer The horse whisperers reputation is damaged when villagers begin to associate the trade with witchcraft The narrator is compared to a demon and witch and is driven out with pitchforks RELATIONSHIPS-Loving Brendon Gallacher The narrator looks back on the relationship with her imaginary friend The relationship was innocent Brendon is the opposite of the narrator in many ways and interests her because his life is so different and dramatic Singh Song! The narrator is in love with his new
bride, so much so that he neglects his work Their relationship is playful and loving like vee rowing through Putney The image of his wife is playful, attractive and independent RELATIONSHIPS-break down Les Grands Seigneurs Marriage is not all the narrator imagined She looked back to her past relationship in which men were the protectors and she was the queen or the damsel who needed rescuing The romance has faded and her role has changed, she is now a trivial toy She has become a stereotypical wife, a little woman Medusa
The narrator is consumed by jealousy because she suspects her husband has been unfaithful Despite this, she still loves him, comparing him to a Greek God She is vulnerable and wants him to love her PRIDE- ARROGANCE The Clown Punk The punk is covered in tattoos which suggests he is proud of identity Hes described as daubed which suggests the images have been clumsily painted on, but hes adopted them as part of his identity The River God
The River God is proud of his powerful strength He arrogantly treats others as playthings Hes possessive and doesnt want to share the beautiful women with anyone The repetition of My in the poem suggests he is proud to possess such beauty LACK OF PRIDE GIVE The homeless narrator initially seems proud, sleeping under the stars sounds quite exotic The repetition of chosen suggests he has made choices to live this way However towards the end of the poem there is a sense of desperation
Im on my knees shows begging and a lack of pride The Hunchback in the Park The Hunchback has withdrawn from the rest of society which suggests a lack of confidence Hes mocked by the truant boys, this shows how little respect people have for him He is associated with animals- not valued as a human being IDENTITY Singh Song! The narrators wife shows that people can embrace two cultures She wears high heels and a Tartan Sari mixture of tradition and British culture The language is a combination of
English and Indian influences Dialect shows how both cultures have been adopted Checking out me history The narrator knows a lot about white history but little about his own black heritage His education has left him blind because he cannot connect to where he is from The narrators Caribbean Creole is written phonetically to show the link between culture and identity NEGATIVE EMOTIONS-Anger and bitterness GIVE The narrator feels angry about the insufficient help he receives as a homeless person His bitterness is expressed through
the sarcastic tone such as dear and Thats big of you He angrily belittles the offer of tea as insufficient to his needs Checking out me history The narrator is angry at the education system which failed to teach him about black history His bitterness is emphasised by the accusatory tone Dem tell me/Wha dem want to tell me. He feels as though his history has been kept from him DECAY On a portrait of a deaf man The narrator cannot stop thinking about his fathers body decaying in the ground He uses vivid images like the
maggots in his eyes The decay is horrifying The narrators faith in God declines and he can see only decay in the world Ozymandias The ruined statue is a symbol of the powerful effects of time of that colossal wreck The image is ironic because time destroys all human achievements and makes them seem insignificant Making Links Poetry Techniques Monologues addressing an audience GIVE The narrator starts by addressing the listener as dear. This sounds romantic and affectionate but we
soon realise it is sarcastic The repetition of you in the final line is angry and accusing Sounds as if the homeless person is speaking directly to the reader so that we might question our treatment of vulnerable people My Last Duchess The Duke addresses his guest as you This makes him sound as though he is trying to justify his actions The silent listener in the poem makes the Duke seem more powerful because he dominates the conversation Dialogues and Narrative poems Singh Song! This poem features a conversation between the narrator and his new
bride It is written phonetically in an IndianEnglish accent which emphasises the importance of their identity Their dialogue is light-hearted and romantic The Ruined Maid The dialogue contrasts Melias worldliness with her friends naivety Her friend points out the change in Melias accent from a country dialect Repetition and rhythm make the conversation seem light hearted even though it deals with morality Narrative poems telling a story The Clown Punk This poem tells the story of the brief moment when the narrator crosses paths with an aging punk The poems narrative element is
emphasised when the narrator offers a moral and tells the kids remember the clown punk The moral lesson at the end is also directed at the reader- we are left to think about how time affects us all The Hunchback in the park The poem is structured as a series of snapshots of the hunchbacks life The narrator refers to the fountain basin where I sailed my ship This emphasises that these are personal memories He doesnt pass judgement or describe his own emotions about the hunchback. This leaves the reader to draw their own conclusions about the hunchbacks life and how he is treated A Sonnet
The Clown Punk The sonnet is split into stanzas. Broken lines and enjambment create uncomfortable pauses and suggest that something is wrong in the poem This is emphasised by the halfrhymes which suggest things are out of balance Its ironic because the punk seems so ugly and sonnets are usually about beauty and love Ozymandias The sonnet is divided into an 8 line section followed by a 6 line section The two sections of the poem are linked by rhyme This is an unusual rhyme scheme for a sonnet which suggests an unbalance The sonnet is about pride instead of love- perhaps too much love for
himself An elegy or Ballad On a portrait of a deaf man The poem has elements of a traditional elegy Its unusual for an elegy that the narrator dwells on the gruesome physical details of his fathers body and the decay Elegies are often read at funerals so its ironic that the narrator questions his faith at the end The Ruined Maid This ballad sounds quite lighthearted because of the strong rhythm Some words are deliberately divided into syllables to emphasise rhythm compa-ny/la-dy these sound jaunty but also artificial because the
rhythm is forced Ballads are a conventional form for describing a character as they build a portrait of the person Couplets- make the poem seem ordered My Last Duchess Rhyming couplets make the poem sound quite formal They represent strict social rules governing the Duchesss behaviour They suggest that the Duke wants to show that he is self-controlled. Iambic Pentameter makes his narrative flow like speech Give The poet uses a couplet at the beginning of the poem The makes the poem sound like a love poem at first because it emphasises the intimate tone of the
speaker Once the rhyme scheme breaks down we realise that things are more complex Theres another rhyming couplet at the end of the poem between you and you. The repetition strengthens the rhyme and emphasises the homeless narrators sarcasm Quatrains and Stanzas of Four Lines On a portrait of a deaf man The poem is written in quatrains in which lines 2 and 4 always rhyme This gives the impression of an ordered, controlled poetic tribute Its emphasised by the first three lines of the quatrain which usually praise the narrators father in a way that is appropriate to an elegy The narrators morbid thoughts are
usually described in line 4 so that they undermine the strict, ordered rhyming scheme Checking out me history The poem uses a variety of verse forms including quatrains. The strict formal quatrains suggest how restrictive the narrators education was The quatrains have an AAAA, AABB, AABA rhyming structure These simple rhymes are like nursery rhymes, making the British history he has been taught seem trivial Repetition for emphasis Brendon Gallacher The phrase my Brendon Gallacher is repeated to emphasise the narrators feelings of love for her
friend my becomes ironic when we realise he was her own creation and becomes sad at the end as it provokes a feeling of loss GIVE The repeated structure of the first four lines of the poem makes the narrator seem in control of their language at first. coppers/silver/gold repeat the value of money You is repeated to show the direct address and to give a desperate and accusing tone Repetition- like a song Singh Song! The repeated refrain of my bride in the fifth stanza suggests he cant
stop thinking about how proud he is of his new wife It is light-hearted and playful like their relationship Checking out me history Repetition is linked to the oral tradition of poetry It has a strong rhythm because its meant to be spoken out loud It makes the poem sound like a chant or song Metaphors- make someone seem powerful Les Grands Seigneurs The narrator uses lists of metaphors to describe the men of her past and emphasise their qualities The men were protective buttresses, vain peacocks and entertaining rocking-horses
She uses romantic metaphors to describe herself as regal queen Horse Whisperer The narrator used to be the horses life-blood this suggests he was necessary for their existence because he was part of them stampede suggests he left the village like a herd of wild animals Similes- emphasise a persons physical qualities The Hunchback in the Park The hunchback is like the park birds and like the water which suggests he has more in common with the natural world than humans straight as a young elm links the woman with nature and suggests her strength can protect him
Casehistory: Alison (head injury) like a Degas dancer- Degas was a painter of ballet dancers so it emphasises her past gracefulness This makes her former self seem frozen in time like a painting that will never change Order and Structure different time frames Horse Whisperer The narrator begins by looking to the past when the horses needed him The warning of the tractor creates a sense of foreboding and the mood becomes more tense In the final stanza the narrator shifts to the present tense to show how things have changed Casehistory: Alison (head injury)
The narrator flits between recollections of her past to contrast them with the present situation The jumbled sequence of memories reflect her confused mental state
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