Learning Objectives Affective and Psychomotor Domains
Interest-Based Bargaining Interest-Based Bargaining Interest-based bargaining involves parties in a collaborative effort to jointly meet each others needs and satisfy mutual interests. Rather than moving from positions to counter positions to a compromise settlement, negotiators pursue a joint problem-solving approach, identifying interests prior to examining specific solutions.
Strategies and outcome of two party (A and B) disputes Definitions An issue is a matter or question parties disagree about. Issues can usually be stated as problems. Positions are statements by a party about how an issue can or should be handled or resolved, or a proposal for a particular solution. Interests are specific needs, conditions or
gains that a party must have met in an agreement for it to be considered satisfactory. Settlement options: possible solutions that address one or more partys interests. The presence of options implies there is more than one way to satisfy interests. Language of negotiations Doing the Magic Helping stakeholders to reveal their interests, jointly educate each other on
them, and use them to build options is at the heart of participation and consensus building. Sustainable and Durable Agreements To achieve a durable settlement, there are at least three types of interests that generally must be met (Lincoln, 1986). These are: Substantive interests: that is, content needs, money, time, goods, or resources. Procedural interests: that is, the needs for specific types of behavior or the way that something is done.
Relationship or psychological interests: that is, the needs that refer to how one feels, how one is treated, or conditions for ongoing relationships. Sustainable and Durable Agreements Frequently, technical professionals, in designing conflict management and public involvement processes, implicitly or subconsciously behave as if they are reaching for point B. Procedural Satisfaction We know we have achieved procedural
satisfaction when the parties to the process say they would use the process again. Defining psychological satisfaction Interest-Based Negotiation Interest-based negotiation is also a set of procedures that can be followed by parties to reach a mutual agreement. Although the procedures may be different from traditional positional bargaining, this is still a formal negotiation process
between participants who have the authority to make commitments on behalf of their organizations. How to do Interest-Based Bargaining? 1. Identify the substantive, procedural and relationship interest/needs that you expect to be satisfied as a result of negotiations. Be clear on: why the needs are important to you how important the needs are to you. 2. Speculate on the substantive, procedural and relationship interests that might be
important to the other negotiators. assess why the needs are important to them assess how important the needs are to them. How to do Interest-Based Bargaining? 3. Begin negotiations by educating each other about your respective interests. Be specific as to why interests are important. If other negotiators present positions, translate them into terms of interest. Do not allow other negotiators to commit to a particular solution or position. Make sure all interests are understood. 4. Frame the problem in a way that it is solvable by
a winwin solution. remove egocentricity by framing problem in a manner that all can accept include basic interests of all parties make the framing congruent with the size of the problem to be addressed. How to do Interest-Based Bargaining? 5. Identify general criteria that must be present in an acceptable settlement. look for general agreements in principle identify acceptable objective criteria that will be used to reach more specific agreements.
6. Generate multiple options for settlement. present multiple proposals make frequent proposals vary the content make package proposals that link solutions to satisfy interests make sure that more than two options are on the table at any given time. How to do Interest-Based Bargaining? 7. Utilize integrative option generating techniques: Expand the pie: Ways that more resources or options can be brought to bear on the problem.
Alternating satisfaction: Each negotiator gets 100 percent of what s/he wants, but at different times. Trade-offs: Exchanges of concessions on issues of differing importance to the negotiators. Consider two or more agenda items simultaneously. Integrative solutions: Look for solutions that involve maximum gains and few or no losses for both parties. Set your sights high on finding a winwin solution. 8. Separate the option generation process from the evaluation process. How to do Interest-Based Bargaining?
9. Work toward agreement. Use the agreement in principle process Fractionate the problem and use a building-block process Educate and be educated about interests of all parties. Assure that all interests will be respected and viewed as legitimate.
Do not exploit another negotiators weakness, demonstrate trust. Put yourself in a one down position to other on issues where you risk a small, but symbolic loss. Provide benefits above and beyond the call of duty. Listen and restate content to demonstrate understanding. Listen and restate feelings to demonstrate acceptance (not necessarily agreement) and understanding of intensity. 10. Identify areas of agreement, restate them, and write them down.
Costs and Benefits of Interest-Based Bargaining Costs requires some trust requires negotiators to disclose information and interests may uncover extremely divergent values or interests. Benefits produces solutions that meet specific interests builds relationships promotes trust models cooperative behavior that may be
valuable in future. Stages of Negotiation Stage 1: Evaluate and Select a Strategy to Guide Problem Solving Stage 2: Make Contact with Other Party or Parties Stage 3: Collect and Analyze Background Information Stage 4: Design a Detailed Plan for Negotiation Stage 5: Build Trust and Cooperation Stage 6: Beginning the Negotiation Session Stage 7: Define Issues and Set an Agenda Stage 8: Uncover Hidden Interests
Stage 9: Generate Options for Settlement Stage 10: Assess Options for Settlement Stage 11: Final Bargaining Stage 12: Achieving Formal Settlement Different attitudes to disputes Attitudes of Interest-Based Bargainers Attitudes of Positional Bargainers Resources are not limited.
Resources are limited. All negotiators interests must be addressed for agreement to be reached. The other negotiator is an opponent; be hard on him/her. Focus on interests not positions. There is a right solution mine.
Parties look for objective or fair standards that all can agree to. The goal is to win as much as possible. Negotiators believe there are multiple Concessions are a sign of satisfactory solutions. weakness. Negotiators are cooperative problem solvers rather than opponents.
A win for one means a loss for the other. People and issues are separate. Respect people, bearing hard on interests. Be on the offensive at all times. Search for winwin solutions. Any Question ?
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