Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Plantae

KINGDOM PLANTAE KINGDOM PLANTAE Something to ponder: Plants are not boring. Plants have devised fabulous mechanisms for sustaining and supporting themselves. Plants may not be able to move, but in their own way, they have figured out ways to do many things better than animals evolved

different strategies. What is an animal really doing when it eats an apple? It is the ultimate bribe tricking the animal to eat something delicious so that the animal will spread its seeds over great distances. KINGDOM PLANTAE 3 Cell wall - composed of cellulose

Eukaryotes Autotrophic Absorb sunlight to make glucose Photosynthesis Multicellular KINGDOM PLANTAE 4

Domains EUKARYA Kingdoms PLANT

Cell Type Prokaryote or Eukaryote EUKARYOTE # of cells Unicellular or Multicellular or Both MULTICELLULAR

Cell Structure Cell wall composition CELL WALL MADE WITH CELLULOSE Nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph or Both

AUTOTROPHS PLANTS VERSUS ALGAE Green algae is believed to be the ancestors of plants.

ALGAE PLANTS unicellular, colonial, or multi-cellular. Multicellular Eukaryotic photosynthesizers

Eukaryotic photosynthesizers Parts: holdfasts, stapes and blades Roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, cones Cell wall made of cellulose

Each algae cell must obtain its own nutrients from water for survival. Some algae cannot move, others float in the water Cell wall made of cellulose Has vascular systems to transport water and nutrients Cannot move, rooted to ground

TO DO Watch Tree and Plant Life in the Jungle SURVIVAL NEEDS Sunlight Gas exchange Water and minerals Movement of water and

nutrients PLANT ADAPTATIONS DEFINITION OF ADAPTATION The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment.

It is derived form the Latin word adaptare which mean to fit. PLANT ADAPTATIONS Plants have adaptations to help them live and grow in different areas. These adaptations make it very difficult for the plant to survive in a different area. This is why plants are found in one area, but not in another.

For example, you wouldnt see a cactus living in the Arctic. Nor would you see lots of really tall trees growing in the grasslands. WHY DO PLANTS ADAPT? For climate/location to get the necessary resources To reduce water loss

For reproduction To defend themselves ATTAINMENT OF RESOURCES Evolutionary trend was to move from water to land, so plants had to adapt Land plants evolved methods to gain vital minerals from the soil. Green algae absorb nutrients they need directly from the water

they live in. Land plants have to live without being suspended in water. ATTAINMENT OF RESOURCES Roots developed as a structure that allowed plants to obtain minerals and water from the soil. ATTAINMENT OF

RESOURCES Some plants developed vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) that act as a transport system to bring water and other substances such as minerals up the plant body, allowing for increased plant size.

ATTAINMENT OF RESOURCES All plants contain lignin which binds to cellulose fibers to harden and strengthen the cell walls of plants to support growth.

ATTAINMENT OF RESOURCES Stems developed to store and transport water & nutrients. Leaves are modified to maximize photosynthesis. TO DO

How the Quiver tree survives in the desert ADAPTATIONS To reduce water loss Reproduction WATER LOSS Strategies to catch and retain water were vital for the survival of land plants.

Once removed from moist, swampy areas, plants risk desiccation, or drying out. Desiccation means to dry out due to a lack of water. WATER LOSS To prevent desiccation, many plants developed a cuticle (a thick, waxy, watertight barrier) that covers the plant and prevents loss of moisture to the air.

WATER LOSS The stomata are openings in the cuticle that allow for gas exchange and transpiration of water as the plant photosynthesis. WATER LOSS There are several regions of the Earth that plants have had to adapt to: Deserts

Grasslands Taiga Tropical Rain Forest WATER LOSS - DESERT Plants called SUCCULENTS store water in their stems and leaves. Some plants have no leaves or leaves that only grow after it rains. Leafless green plants conduct photosynthesis in their green stems.

Long roots spread out wide or go deep into the ground to absorb water. Leaves with hair help shade the plant, reducing water loss. Some leaves turn during the day to expose a minimum surface area to the heat. Grow slowly uses less water. WATER LOSS - GRASSLAND

Roots extend deep into the ground to absorb as much moisture as they can. Prairie grasses have narrow leaves which slow water loss. WATER LOSS - TAIGA Many trees have needle-like leaves whose shape reduced water loss Waxy coating on leaves prevents evaporation

WATER LOSS TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Here there can be too much water! Drip tips and waxy surfaces allow water to run off to discourage growth of bacteria and fungi. Smooth bark or waxy flowers speed the run-off of water. Many bromeliads are epiphytes (plant that live on other plants). Instead of collecting water with roots, they collect

water in a central reservoir from which they absorb the water. Epiphytic orchids have aerial roots that cling to the host plant, absorbs minerals, and absorb water from the air. TO DO Plant Structure and Adaptations REPRODUCTION The reproductive processes of the earliest plants to

evolve from green algae still required an aquatic environment. Consequently, these primitive land plants could live only in highly moist, swampy areas. Plants evolved the ability to reproduce without water and began to populate drier environments. REPRODUCTION The seed allowed safe dispersal

of plant embryos by supplying it with nutrition and protection against hostile conditions. Seeds can remain dormant during unfavorable conditions. REPRODUCTION Pollen grains containing the male gamete could

be dispersed without water. REPRODUCTION Flowers developed to attract pollinators and allow for greater dispersal of the pollen. REPRODUCTION Fruits developed

to protect the embryo and allow for greater dispersal of the plant. TO DO Watch: Adaption to Extremes

PLANT DEFENSES Mechanical defense - incorporated into the physical structure of the organism. thorns, spines and stiff hairs that repel a predator PLANT DEFENSES Chemical defense - occurs when the plant produces stinging sensations, paralysis, poisoning, or just a bad taste.

Chemical Defense PLANT DEFENSES Camouflage - the organism blends into its environment or appear to be something they are not Pebble Plant Lithops

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