1 Business Context and Operation of Information Systems Implementation of Information Systems in support of the Organisations Strategy Risks and Benefits in information related systems 2
The importance and characteristics of information for organisations The role of information systems in organisations Emerging information system trends in organisations Enterprise-wide systems/knowledge management systems/customer relationship management systems/E-business and Web tools Information technology enabled transformation
Emergence of new forms of organisation. Geographically dispersed (virtual) teams; role of information systems in virtual teams and challenges for virtual collaboration. 3 4 Some say its Processed data. Data that is (1) Accurate and timely. (2) Specific and organized for a purpose. (3) Presented within a context that gives
it meaning and relevance. (4) Can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty. 5 Information is valuable because it can affect behavior, a decision, or an outcome. For example: if a manager is told his/
her company's net profit decreased in the past month, he/she may use this information as a reason to cut financial spending for the next month.. 6 Data vs. Information Data Distinct pieces of raw facts Information A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the
value of the facts themselves 7 Data thermometer readings of temperature taken every hour: 16.0, 17.0, 16.0, 18.5, 17.0,15.5. Transformation Information todays highest: 18.5 todays lowest: 15.5
8 Data Represented by Alphanumeric data Numbers, letters, and other characters Image data Graphic images or pictures
Audio data Sound, noise, tones Video data Moving images or pictures 9
accurate complete economical flexible reliable relevant simple timely
verifiable accessible secure 10 Ease the managing task Guide for problem solving & decision making Advance in carrier. Realize opportunities and meet personal and company goals. In Business: used in all functional areas.
11 You want the information about you in a health information system to be: As accurate as possible (e.g. your age, sex) As complete as possible Relevant To be reliable Should be available in a timely manner (e.g. information about your drug allergies are available before your operation!)
12 Definition A set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals A combination of components working together 13 Customer Maintenance Component
Order Entry Component Customer Support System Catalog Maintenance Component Order Fulfillment Component 14 Refers to a combination of components working together. For example, a computer system
includes both hardware and software. A Windows system is a personal computer running the Windows operating system. computer system. operating system. 15 Inputs Processing Outputs mechanisms 16
Elements System Inputs Movie Processing elements Actors, director, Filming, staff, sets, editing, equipment special
effects, distribution Goal Outputs Finished Entertainin film g movie, delivered to film movie awards, studio profits
17 System boundary Defines the system and distinguishes it from everything else System types Simple vs. complex Open vs. closed Stable vs. dynamic Adaptive vs. non-adaptive
Permanent vs. temporary 18 Efficiency A measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed (eg. Efficiency of a motor is the energy produced divided by what is consumed) Effectiveness
A measure of the extent to which a system achieves its goals System performance standard A specific objective of the system 19 System variable A quantity or item that can be controlled
by the decision maker E.g. the price a company charges for a product System parameter A value or quantity that cannot be controlled by the decision maker E.g., cost of a raw material 20
Model An abstraction or an approximation that is used to represent reality Types of models
Narrative (aka descriptive) Physical Schematic Mathematical Next slide 21 Make understanding complex systems easier (simplifies) Can be used to design make models of new systems so can refine
them Makes communication about systems easier (e.g. a picture can communicate a thousand words) 22 Definition A set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input), manipulate (process), and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective (IS) Pronounced as separate letters, and short for Information Systems or Information Services. For
many companies, IS is the name of the department responsible for computers, networking and data management. Other companies refer to the department as IT (Information Technology) or MIS (Management Information Services). 23 Environment Organisation Input Processing Output
Feedback 24 External Environment People Organisation Information System Technology
25 Input The activity of gathering and capturing data Whatever goes into the computer Processing Converting or transforming data into useful outputs
Output Useful information, usually in the form of documents and/or reports Anything that comes out of a computer 26 Whatever goes into the computer. Input can take a variety of forms, from commands you enter on a keyboard to data from another
computer or device. A device that feeds data into a computer, such as a keyboard or mouse, is called an input device. The act of entering data into a computer 27 Anything that comes out of a computer. Output can be meaningful information or gibberish, and it can appear in a variety of forms -- as binary numbers, as characters, as pictures, and as printed pages. Output devices include display screens, loudspeakers, and printers. To give out. For example, display
screens output images, printers output print, and loudspeakers output sounds. 28 Feedback Output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities Forecasting A proactive approach to feedback Use for estimating future sales or inventory needs 29
Manual systems still widely used E.g., some investment analysts manual draw charts and trend lines to assist them in making investment decisions Computerized systems E.g., the above trends lines can be drawn by
computer Evolution Many computerized system began as manual systems E.g., directory assistance (1919) 30
A CBIS is composed of Hardware Software Databases Telecommunications People
Procedures Together they are Configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information 31 Five parts Hardware
Software Database Telecommunications Networks 32 Hardware Computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities The objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips.
33 Hardware refers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips. In contrast, software is untouchable. Software exists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance. Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer without software is like a book full of blank pages -- you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words to make a book meaningful.
34 Software Computer programs that govern/determine/control the operation of the computer Computer instructions or data 35 Software is computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software. The storage
devices and display devices are hardware. The terms software and hardware are used as both nouns and adjectives. For example, you can say: "The problem lies in the software," meaning that there is a problem with the program or data, not with the computer itself. You can also say: "It's a software problem. 36 The distinction between software and hardware is sometimes confusing because they are so integrally linked. Clearly, when you purchase a program, you are buying software. But to buy the software, you need to buy the disk (hardware) on which the
software is recorded. Software is often divided into two categories. Systems software includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. Applications software includes programs that do real work for users. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, and database management systems fall under the category of applications software. 37 Books provide a useful information. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer without software is like a
book full of blank pages -- you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words to make a book meaningful. 38 Database An organized collection of facts and information A collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data
39 A database is a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is equivalent to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number. 40
An alternative concept in database design is known as Hypertext. In a Hypertext database, any object, whether it be a piece of text, a picture, or a film, can be linked to any other object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information, but they are not designed for numerical analysis. To access information from a database, you need a database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data in a database. 41
Telecommunications The electronic transmission of signals for communications; enables organizations to link computer systems into effective networks Refers to all types of data transmission, from voice to video 42 Network Used to connect computers and computer equipment in a building,
around the country, across the world, to enable electronic communications A group of two or more computer systems linked together 43 There are many types of computer networks, including: local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building). wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are
connected by telephone lines or radio waves. 44 In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks: topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network . architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as
using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture. 45 Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers. 46 Internet The worlds largest telecommunications
network A network of networks Free exchange of information A global network connecting millions of computers. Intranet A network that uses Internet technology within an organization A network belonging to an organization
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