Human Growth and Development Infancy and Childhood Erik Eriksons Stages of Development Erik Erikson was a neo-freudian psychologist who theorized that personality develops in a series of
stages. Unlike Freud, he describes the impact of social development across the lifespan. In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Eriksons view, these conflicts are centered on either
developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure. Agree or disagree? Success is a journey, not a Infancy = birth to 18 months
Childs weight may triple; height increase by 50%; time of learning - to eat solid food, to sit, crawl and walk Developing trust is the most important task Infants of parents who are attentive - who play with and talk to the infant and give comfort - learn to view the world as a safe place. These children see people as being dependable. If parents ignore a childs
needs, the child may learn to be distrustful. Early Childhood = 18 months to 3 years begin to feel pride in Children accomplishments and are eager to learn more. Children learn to talk, climb, push
and pull. They increase vocabulary and begin talking in sentences. If a parent accepts the childs need to do whatever he is capable of, the child will develop a sense of autonomy If parents are overprotective or critical of the childs behaviors, the child may develop doubts about his or her abilities Middle Childhood = preschool 3-5 years
Children learn to initiate play activities; ask lots of questions; recognize emotions and practice expressing them in appropriate ways If parents show approval of these new abilities and encourage questions, children learn creativity, initiative, and the ability to start something on their own. Children of parents who are impatient with the child may develop a sense of guilt about self-initiated activities, resulting in low self esteem Late Childhood = School
age, 6-11 years becomes an important part of a School childs life. Children develop skills in reading, writing, and math. Children learn to get along with peers, learn appropriate roles in society and develop a conscience. their efforts are rewarded and Ifappreciated,
their pride in their work increases. Children who are scolded for making a mess, getting in the way, or not following directions may develop feelings of self-doubt. Adventures in babysitting! Newborn babies are basically helpless. It is important to childproof a home to prevent accidents.
NEVER leave a baby alone in a bathtub, it only takes seconds for a a baby to drown. Young children need constant attention, protection, and verbal and physical affirmation If you are self centered and not willing to put a childs
needs above your own wants you should not watch or have children, yet!
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