Human Body Systems

Human Body Systems

Human Body Systems 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Digestive Urinary

Respiratory Circulatory Skeletal Muscular 7. 8. Nervous Integumentary 9. Immune

10. Endocrine 11. Reproductive Digestive System Purpose The Digestive System converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by cells; absorbs food;

eliminates waste. Organs/Components Mouth The first stop in the disassembly of your food; Mechanical digestion = chewing and Chemical digestion = enzymes found in saliva Pharynx (throat) Epiglottis Small flap that closes over the

opening of the respiratory system when swallowing, preventing food from entering the airway. Esophagus Muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach Organs/Components Liver Produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats

Gallbladder Stores bile produced by the liver Stomach Muscular pouch like organ where involuntary muscular churning and chemical digestion occurs Pancreas Secretes enzymes to help break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats Small Intestine Narrow muscular tube where

digestion of food is completed with the help of enzymes secreted by the liver and pancreas Organs/Components Villi (plural: Villus) Little projections in the lining of the small intestine that function in the absorption of digested food Large Intestine (colon) Muscular tube where water

and salts are absorbed; material spends 18-24 hours here Appendix Tube like extension off of the large intestine Rectum The last part of the digestive system, feces are eliminated from the rectum through the anus

How Does this System Relate to others? Muscular contains smooth muscle Nervous gets signals that control the rate of digestion Circulatory broken down food travels through blood vessels to cells Endocrine hormones (ex. Insulin) control blood sugar levels

Urinary System Purpose The Urinary System filters blood, maintains electrolyte and fluid homeostasis, and eliminates waste products from the body Organs/Components Kidneys

Help maintain homeostasis by filtering blood to remove waste Nephron Tiny filter that makes up the kidney, there are millions Ureters Tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder Urinary Bladder

Smooth muscle bag that stores a solution of wastes called urine Urethra Tube where urine passed out of the body (*Excretory *Skin *Lungs Only) How Does this System Relate to

others? Circulatory waste products are carried from the cells to the kidney through blood vessels Endocrine hormones are sent that control water levels and homeostasis Respiratory expels toxic CO2 out of body

Respiratory System Purpose The Respiratory System provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes carbon Organs/Components

Nose and Mouth Respiration begins with taking in air Pharynx (Throat) Larynx Where your vocal cords are

Trachea (Windpipe) Passes air into the bronchi Bronchi (singular: Bronchus) Passes air from trachea to the lungs

Organs/Components Bronchioles Each Bronchus in the lungs branches out like a tree into bronchioles Alveoli Sacs at the end of the Bronchioles where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged Diaphragm

Muscle that enables you to breathe How Does this System Relate to others? Circulatory brings O2 to the cells and CO2 back to the lungs Excretory

part of the excretory system to get rid of toxic CO2 from the body Diseases and Disorders Cntd Pleurisy- (first information, there are two layers that surround the lungs. They are covered in blood vessels and nerves. The inner lung-side layer is called the visceral pleura. The outer ribside layer is called the parietal pleura) In pleurisy, the pleura become inflamed. If/when the pleura

become inflamed enough, it causes a sharp, stabbing pain, usually in the side or upper back/chest. Pneumonia- an inflammation or infection of the lungs characterized by fluid buildup in the alveoli. Usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemicals. p147/148/Cardiovascul ar Carotid Dorsalis Pedis

Subclavian Axillary Aortic arch Brachial Abdominal aorta Radial Hepatic artery Ulnar Renal arteries Iliac arteries Femoral arteries Popliteal arteries

Anterior and Posterior tibial **You have a heart sketch already, today, you are adding a completely separate sketch of the major arteries Major Veins p148-color blue Jugular Left Subclavian Superior Vena Cava Inferior Vena Cava Axillary Basilic

Brachial Superior Mesenteric Renal (r and L) Iliac Femoral Poplieteal Anterior and Posterior Tibial Dorsal Venous Arch **Figure 6-25

On page 130 Circulatory System Purpose The Circulatory Systems brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells; removes cell wastes; regulates body temperature

Organs/Components Heart The pump that keeps blood flowing through your body Blood Vessels

Arteries Carry blood away from the heart Blood Red Blood Cells Carry oxygen to the body cells White blood cells Defend body against disease Platelets Cell fragments needed for blood clotting Plasma

Fluid portion of the blood How Does this System Relate to others? Connected to almost all other systems since the circulatory system carries oxygen to all cells Skeletal System

Purpose The Skeletal System supports the body; protects internal organs; allows movement; stores mineral reserves; Organs/Components Bones

Produce blood cells Red Marrow Produce red and white blood cells Yellow Marrow Consists of stored fat Joints Found where two (2) bones meet Cartilage Surrounds the end on bone to prevent grinding

upon another bone Ligaments Tough band of tissue attaching one bone to another Tendons Thick bands of tissue connecting muscle to bone How Does this System Relate to others? Muscular

system bones and muscles work together for movement Circulatory system and immune system all blood cells (red and white) are made in the bone marrow Muscular System Purpose The Muscular

System produces movement; helps to circulate venous blood, moves food Organs/Components Cardiac Muscle Makes up your heart, is adapted to generate and conduct electrical impulses Skeletal Muscle

(voluntary muscle) Attaches to and moves bones Smooth Muscle (involuntary muscle) Found on walls of internal organs and blood vessels How Does this System Relate to others? Works

closely with the: skeletal system Circulatory brings O2 to muscles and waste products such as lactic acid away Nervous how muscles contract ervous System Purpose

The Nervous System recognizes and coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments Organs/Components Neurons (Nerve

Cells) Basic unit of structure and function of the nervous system Long cell with 3 regions 1. Cell body 2. Dendrites Receive impulses and deliver them to the cell

3. Axon Extension of the Organs/Components Brain Control center Spinal Cord Central Nervous

System Made up of the brain and spinal cord and coordinates your bodys activities Peripheral Nervous System How Does this System Relate to others?

The nervous system works with many other systems, but works closely with the: Digestive system Muscular system Integumentary System

Purpose The Integumentary System is the barrier against infections and injury; regulates body temperature; protects against ultraviolet Organs/Components Skin

Epidermis: outermost layer of skin covers the surfaces of the body Dermis: inner layer of skin Contains blood vessels, nerve cells, hair follicles, sweat and oil glands Hair, Skin and Nails Made up of Keratin Pigment of skin and hair Controlled by melanin Sweat Produced to help maintain homeostasis Oil Glands

How Does this System Relate to others? The integumentary contains blood vessels and nerves Immune System Purpose The Immune System

helps protect the body from disease; collects fluid lost from blood vessels and return it to the circulatory system Organs/Components White Blood Thymus Spleen Lymph Lymph

Cells Vessels Nodes How Does this System Relate to others? The immune system works closely with the circulatory system

Endocrine System Purpose The Endocrine System controls growth, development, and metabolism; Organs/Components Hypothalamus

Part of the brain that the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems Pituitary The main gland of the endocrine system. It is stimulated by the hypothalamus when changes in homeostasis are detected and produces chemicals and stimulates

other glands. Organs/Components Thyroid Produces thyroxin, the main growth and metabolic hormone Also regulates calcium levels in the blood Parathyroid Regulates minerals

by producing PTH (parathyroid hormone) Organs/Components Adrenal Glands Prepare the body for stress by releasing hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) norephinephrine

which increases blood pressure and heart rate called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the Organs/Components Pancreas produces two important hormones insulin and glucagon: they work together to

maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy Ovaries Secretes female sex hormones Testes Secretes male sex hormones How Does this System Relate to others?

The endocrine system works closely with the reproductive system and the digestive system. Several hormones originate in the brain, part of the nervous system. Reproductive System Purpose The Reproductive

System produces reproductive cells; in females nurtures and protects developing embryo Organs/Components Males Penis Testes Site of sperm production

Epididymis Where sperm mature Vas Deferens Duct where mature sperm are stored before being transported to the urethra Urethra

Transports sperm out of the male body Organs/Components Females Ovaries Where eggs mature Fallopian Tubes Tube connecting ovaries to the uterus Uterus Where a fetus develops

during pregnancy Vagina Canal leading to the How Does this System Relate to others? The reproductive system works most closely with the endocrine system (hormones)

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