History of the Periodic Table - at Clark University

History of the Periodic Table - at Clark University

History of the Periodic Table John Newland Law of Octaves Law of Octaves: 1863 Dmitri Mendeleev

1869 only 63 known elements Ranked elements by atomic mass (generally) Dmitri Mendeleev Predicted the existence and properties of elements PREDICTED

ACTUAL Lord Rayleigh Noble Gases 1895 first noble gas discovered. Argon nonreactive. Placed at the end of the table.

He Ne Kr Ar Xe

Noble Gases Non-reactive because they have EIGHT valence electrons REMEMBER: VALENCE electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell that determine an elements reactivity.

Octet Rule The octet rule states that elements gain or lose electrons until they have an electron configuration like the nearest noble gas. Elements and compounds WANT to have a full

outer electron shell. Glenn Seaborg Last change to the periodic table 1940 discovered plutonium and all elements from 94 to 102

Moved the Actinide and Lanthanide series beneath the table Modern Table Arranged by atomic number:

Increasing number of protons (and therefore electrons in neutral atoms). Contains Periods and Groups Periodicity A pattern that repeats in this case, repeating

properties of elements Periods are HORIZONAL rows Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4

Period 5 Period 6 Period 7 Groups The vertical columns of the periodic table

Also called Families Groups Elements in groups share similar properties Well get into the details of this later.

Exit Slip Write down any questions that you have about the periodic table.

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