Getting from here to there and back - The impact of a few ...
Getting from here to there and back The impact of a few transportation innovations on history Class 2 William A. Reader E-mail: [email protected] 1 What We Will Cover Today Finish the discussion on horses
Significant wars involving the horse and some of the historical consequences of those wars What if the horse had never been domesticated or had become extinct The horse and the origin of motion pictures The impact of the camel The Impact of the sailing ship The full-rigged ship Cannon
2 Unification of China Qin conquest of China Steppe nomads using chariots created the Qin empire of China Ended the Warring States period Created a unified China for the first time Paved the way for the Han Dynasty
3 The Second Punic War Hannibal made use of cavalry to defeat Roman infantry in several major battles Cannae was the most famous because of the tactics Hannibal used The Roman defeat of Hannibals army at Zama was made possible by Numidian cavalry (now
allied with Rome) 4 The Fall of Rome The Fall of the Western Roman Empire was hastened by the migration from northeast Asia of the Huns The Huns displaced other tribes in a cascading pattern
Arriving in Europe, the Huns attacked the Goths who fled into the Roman Empire Eventually, the Huns crossed the Rhine and later invaded Italy 5 The Avars In the 6th century, the Avars invaded Europe They introduced the stirrup and a saddle with a reinforced back into Europe
These innovations allowed a rider to anchor himself to the horse with his feet, freeing his hands to both carry a shield and sword or lance. The stirrup eventually led to the Medieval knight The Arab Conquests In 224, Parthian rule in Persia was replaced by Sasanian rule. Led to a long series of wars between RomeByzantium and Persia
After a long, mutually exhausting war, Arab invaders in 636 defeated the Byzantines and conquered Persia with the aid of the Arabian horse and the Arabian camel The Battle of Tours At Tours in 732, Frankish infantry defeated Arab cavalry As a result of the battle, Martel decided that he needed a significant cavalry force
This led to the development of feudalism as a means of supporting and equipping a professional cavalry force The Carolingians & Feudalism The development of feudalism made possible the supporting and equipping of a professional cavalry force With mounted cavalry, Charlemagne was able to create the Carolingian empire
Later, with the destrier and chain mail/body armor, the armored knight came into his own Medieval Knight Impact of the Horse Collar Another invention that revolutionized Medieval Europe was the horse collar and breast strap The horse collar enabled Europeans to replace
oxen with horses Peasants now could plow land much faster with much less effort and time Merchants, traders, and peasants could also use the horse to pull 4-wheel wagons with heavy loads The Mongol Empire - 1 The Mongol armies consisted of light and heavy cavalry The light cavalry was equipped with bows-and-arrows,
sword or battle axe, javelins, and a leather-covered wicker shield The heavy cavalry wore iron helmets, leather body armor with rings or scales of iron and carried a shield, bows-andarrows, scimitar, and lance During battle, a screen of light cavalry unleashed a volley of arrows, moving to the rear to allow the heavy cavalry to advance in a massed charge The Mongol Empire - 2 The Mongols conquered Russia, sacked Baghdad,
conquered China, and reached as far as Breslau and Budapest in Europe The peace and order introduced by the Mongols fostered trade along the Silk Road The Mongols introduced several Chinese technological innovations to Europe Paper currency Block printing technology Gunpowder
Cast iron/steel The Mongol Empire - 3 Two unintended consequences of the Mongol conquests eventually undid the Mongol Empire Mongol horsemen brought back the bubonic plague from Burma and Yunan The gunpowder which the Mongols brought to Europe led to the development of firearms which
could overwhelm Mongol archers Firearms and the Horse The invention of firearms made the knight obsolete since bullets could penetrate the knights armor Despite the coming of firearms, warrior elites on horseback resisted acceptance of the longbow and gun since it threatened their elite status
Thus cavalry charges persisted into the wars of the 19th century and even into World War I Firearms and the Horse - 2 Despite elite warrior resistance, the horses role by the 19th century became that of: Scouting, Screening infantry movements, Raiding enemy supply lines, Transporting supplies and soldiers to the battlefield
Transport of artillery pieces, Removing wounded from the battlefield Foraging Battles of cavalry units, such as the Civil War battle of Brandy Station, were between men on horseback armed with rifles and pistols. Firearms and the Horse - 3 Paradoxically, the large conscript armies of the
20th century required large numbers of horses to meet the massive logistical demands In World War I, every army depended on horses to move supplies from railheads to the front In World War II, the German and the Russian armies both relied on horses for their logistics Firearms and the Horse - 4 In the 21st century, the horse still has had a
role in war In the Sudan, the Arab Janjaweed fighters use horses in their wars in Darfur, western Sudan, and Eastern Chad In Afghanistan, U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) used horses in the northern mountains of Afghanistan The Horse Cultures of the Plains Indians - 1 The horse played a major role in the Spanish
conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires By the early 1600s, Spanish rule and horses had spread to the Pueblo settlements of the American Southwest. In 1680, the Pueblos revolted Led to the escape of thousands of Spanish horses The Horse Cultures of the Plains Indians - 2 Before the horse, the North American prairie had few human inhabitants
The tough sod without a steel plow discouraged farming Buffalo were too fast to easily hunt The horses speed enabled hunters to single out a specific animal and kill it at close range with a bowand-arrow The Comanches of Texas were the first to use the horse to hunt buffalo. Comanche Indians Hunting Buffalo
21 The Horse Cultures of the Plains Indians - 3 The horse impacted the Amerindians in ways other than that of hunting buffalo Made travel across the Plains easier Led many tribes to relocate to the Great Plains As buffalo-hunting tribes increased in number and size, intertribal wars became common In the Southwest, the Comanche won out over their
Apache rivals, forcing them westward where they become the Navaho The Horse Cultures of the Plains Indians - 4 The horse and the warrior culture that it engendered enabled the Plains Indians to resist Euro-American settlement The result was a series of Indian wars that lasted through much of the 19th century These wars ended only when the Amerindian food
base the buffalo was destroyed If the Horse Had Never Been Domesticated The impact of the horse can be illustrated by comparing the Old World which had the horse to the New World which didnt With the horse, the Old World saw the emergence of the nomad horse cultures of the steppes. Without the horse, the prairies remained undeveloped and largely uninhabited.
If the Horse Had Never Been Domesticated 2 Horses promoted trade in commodities and products that could not be easily carried by human porters Persian, Chinese, and Roman rulers embarked on road construction. There was no such construction in the Americas The Silk Road, especially under the Mongols, promoted extensive trade across Eurasia, There was no equivalent Silk Road in the Americas
Without horses, ideas and inventions would have spread much more slowly or not at all If the Horse Had Never Been Domesticated - 3 In the Old World: Trade and idea dissemination promoted the growth of metallurgy. The horse permitted the creation of empires.
In the New World: Metallurgical advances around the Great Lakes did not reach the Aztec or Inca domains Empires were limited by logistic inadequacies Aztec-Incan armies were technologically inferior to their Spanish enemies 26
If the Horse Had Never Been Domesticated 4 Without the horse: Old World civilizations would have remained isolated in their alluvial valleys The Central Asian steppe would have remain undeveloped and largely uninhabited The empires of Persia, Alexander, Rome, and Genghis Khan would never have been created The great inventions of steel, paper, printing, gunpowder, and the zero might well have never been
diffused across Eurasia Muybridge Horse Photographs Impact of the Camel Notes About the Camel - 1 There are two types of camels The Arabian camel or dromedary which has one hump
It inhabits the Sahara and Arabian deserts, the Middle East, North Africa, and Australia The Bactrian camel which has two humps It inhabits the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts, Central Asia, and Mongolia Bactrian Camel Arabian Camel
Notes About the Camel - 2 Camels do not store water in their humps, but distribute it uniformly throughout their bodies Camels can go days, even a few weeks in exceptional circumstances, without water The Bactrian and Arabian camel can interbreed The Arabs used the dromedary, but both types of camels were used on the Silk Road as carriers of trade goods
Notes About the Camel - 3 A camel can carry up to 900 lbs for short distances. It was also used for riding, tilling the land, pulling carts, and as a source of meat and milk When crossing a hot desert, a camel carried between 120-200 kilograms (55-90 lbs) of cargo for 8-12 hours a day at 2.5 to 5.0 miles an hour (in addition to the water it needed for drinking)
Notes About the Camel - 4 The Arabian camel was first domesticated in Arabia Camels were not widely used in combat Camels were indispensable in the desert for the logistical capability they provided Used to carry the water and forage needed by the horses With camels, Arab armies could traverse the desert to make surprise attacks on enemy garrisons and troop concentrations
Arab Conquests - 1 In 224, Parthian rule in Persia was replaced by Sasanian rule. This touched off a long series of wars between RomeByzantium and Persia With both Byzantium and Persia exhausted, Arab invaders in 636 defeated the Byzantines and conquered Persia Key to this was the Arabian horse and the dromedary camel
Arab invaders were aided by large sections of the Syrian and Egyptian populations Arab Conquests - 2 From the Middle East, the Arabs advanced eastward into Persia and Central Asia and westward into Egypt, North Africa, and Spain Arab conquest of North Africa (present day Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria) was aided by Berber resentment of RomanVisigoth rule
In 711, an Arab-Berber army led by Tariq ibn Ziyad landed near Gibraltar and by 720 conquered all of Spain except for the Asturias Arab Conquests - 3 At Tours in 732, Frankish infantry defeated Arab cavalry One reason the Franks won was that they placed their army on a wooded hill, forcing the Arabs to charge into
a wooded area As a result of the battle, Martel decided that he needed a significant cavalry force This led to the development of feudalism as a means of supporting and equipping a professional cavalry force Effects of the Camel - 1 With the camel saddle, the camel replaced
wheeled transport in large parts of the Middle East and North Africa Because they could cross inhospitable deserts, camels brought Tibet, central Asia, the Arabian peninsula, and sub-Saharan West Africa into the world trading economy Led to a massive camel caravan trade between North Africa (including the port of Ceuta), Mali (where rock salt was mined) and Timbuktu
Effects of the Camel - 2 In 1324-25, Musa I (aka Mansa Musa), ruler of the Mali Empire, went on a pilgrimage to Mecca He brought with him 80 camels (each carrying anywhere from 50-300 lbs of gold) and spent very freely en route One of the places he visited en route was Ceuta In 1415, Ceuta was captured by the Portuguese After capturing Ceuta, the Portuguese heard about Musas famous pilgrimage and decided they needed to find the
mines that produced all this gold Blocked by Islamic control of the desert route, the Portuguese decided to go via sea down the west coast of Africa Kingdom of Mali Effects of the Camel - 3 The logistical capabilities of the camel led The importation of camels into Australia and later the subsequent creation of a large population of
feral camels The creation of the U.S. Army Camel Corps which existed from 1857 to 1865 The creation of camel units by the British, French, German, Spanish, and Italian colonial armies
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