Fusion Energy Source of Energy Before 1940 the Suns energy was a mystery. The Sun is 5 billion years old. Chemical reactions: Cant create enough energy Gravitational energy:
Produces enough, but Sun runs out in 100 million years Nuclear forces: Einstein showed that there was enough energy in mass Subatomic Particles Components of atoms: Proton, positive electric charge, 1.0073 AMU Neutron, no electric charge, 1.0087 AMU Electron, negative electric
charge, 0.0005 AMU electron nucleus proton 1 atomic mass unit (AMU) = 1.66 10-27 kg neutron Helium atom with 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons
Nuclear Forces Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force Strongest of the forces Weaker than electric force Holds together protons and neutrons, others not affected Causes radioactivity and affects all particles
Very short range size of a proton (10-15 m) Same short range as the strong nuclear force Energy in the Nucleus Einsteins relativity relates mass and energy: E = mc 2. Nuclear mass from the sum of its protons and neutrons Altered by strong force binding energy Mass can be converted to energy. Hydrogen-1 atom 1.0078 AMU Helium-4 atom is 4.0030 AMU 4(1.078) minus (4.030) equals available energy
Nuclear Fusion Electric charge causes positive nuclei to repel. At high temperatures nuclei get close enough for the strong force to pull them together. Nuclear fusion Extra particles to conserve charge and energy heavier nucleus starting nuclei fusion other particles
Proton-Proton Cycle Fusion takes place two particles at a time. Step 1: two protons form a deuterium nucleus with positron and a neutrino. neutron hydrogen nuclei with one proton each neutrino: related to electrons by the weak nuclear force positron: positive charged
electron; annihilates to form photons electron photons Proton Fusion 2 Step 2: A deuterium nucleus absorbs a proton and becomes helium-3. The helium-3 is in an excited state and emits a photon when it goes to a ground state. neutron proton
photon Proton Fusion 3 Step 3: Two helium-3 nuclei collide. They rearrange particles so that very stable helium-4 is formed with two extra protons spit out. proton helium-3 helium-4 Solar Neutrinos Neutrinos from fusion can be detected on
Earth. Deep mine detectors (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory) Energy estimates from Suns core Single solar neutrino
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