Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards

Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards

WILEY IFRS EDITION Prepared by Coby Harmon University of California, Santa Barbara 1-1 Westmont College PREVIEW OF CHAPTER 1 Financial Accounting IFRS 3rd Edition Weygandt Kimmel Kieso 1-2 CHAPTER 1 Accounting in Action LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1 Explain what accounting is. 2 Identify the users and uses of accounting. 3 Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept. 4 Explain accounting standards and measurement principles. 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption. 6 State the accounting equation, and define its components. 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. 8 Understand the five financial statements and how they are prepared. 1-3

What is Accounting? Accounting consists of three basic activitiesit identifies, records, and communicates Learning Objective 1 Explain what accounting is. the economic events of an organization to interested users. 1-4 LO 1 Three Activities Illustration 1-1 The activities of the accounting process The accounting process includes the bookkeeping function. 1-5

LO 1 Assumptions Review Question Which of the following is not a step in the accounting process? a. Identification. b. Recording. c. Economic entity. d. Communication 1-6 LO 1 Who Uses Accounting Data? INTERNAL USERS Illustration 1-2 Questions that internal users ask 1-7 LO 1 Who Uses Accounting Data? EXTERNAL USERS Learning Objective 2 Identify the

users and uses of accounting. Illustration 1-3 Questions that external users ask 1-8 LO 2 > DO IT! Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. 1. The three steps in the accounting process are identification, recording, and communication. 2. Bookkeeping encompasses all steps in the accounting process. 3. Accountants prepare, but do not interpret, financial reports. 4. The two most common types of external users are investors and company officers. 5. Managerial accounting activities focus on reports for internal users. Solution: 1. True 2. 3. 4. False 5. 1-9 False False True LO 2 The Building Blocks of Accounting

Ethics in Financial Reporting Standards of conduct by which ones actions are judged as right or wrong, honest or dishonest, fair or not fair, are ethics. 1-10 Learning Objective 3 Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept. Recent financial scandals include: Enron (USA), Parmalat (ITA), Satyam Computer Services (IND), AIG (USA), and others. Effective financial reporting depends on sound ethical behavior. LO 3 Ethics in Financial Reporting Illustration 1-4 Steps in analyzing ethics cases and situations 1-11

LO 3 Ethics Insight Dewey & LeBoeuf (USA) I Felt the PressureWould You? I felt the pressure. Thats what some of the employees of the nowdefunct law firm of Dewey & LeBoeuf LLP (USA) indicated when they helped to overstate revenue and use accounting tricks to hide losses and cover up cash shortages. These employees worked for the former finance director and former chief financial officer (CFO) of the firm. Here are some of their comments: I was instructed by the CFO to create invoices, knowing they would not be sent to clients. When I created these invoices, I knew that it was inappropriate. I intentionally gave the auditors incorrect information in the course of the audit. 1-12 (continued) LO 3 Ethics Insight Dewey & LeBoeuf (USA) I Felt the PressureWould You? What happened here is that a small group of lower-level employees over a period of years carried out the instructions of their bosses. Their bosses, however, seemed to have no concern as evidenced by various e-mails with one another in which they referred to their financial manipulations as accounting tricks, cooking the books, and fake income. Source: Ashby Jones, Guilty Pleas of Dewey Staff Detail the Alleged Fraud,

Wall Street Journal (March 28, 2014). 1-13 LO 3 Accounting Standards International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) http://www.iasb.org/ Learning Objective 4 Explain accounting standards and the measurement principles. International Financial Reporting Standards Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) http://www.fasb.org/ Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) 1-14 LO 4 Measurement Principles HISTORICAL COST PRINCIPLE (or cost principle) dictates that companies record assets at their cost. FAIR VALUE PRINCIPLE states that assets and liabilities should be reported at fair value (the price received to sell an asset or settle a liability).

1-15 LO 4 Global Insight The Korean Discount If you think that accounting standards dont matter, consider recent events in South Korea. International investors expressed concerns that the financial reports of some South Korean companies were inaccurate. Accounting practices sometimes resulted in differences between stated revenues and actual revenues. Because investors did not have complete faith in the accuracy of the numbers, they were unwilling to pay as much for the shares of these companies relative to shares of comparable companies in different countries. This difference in share price was referred to as the Korean discount. In response, Korean regulators decided to require companies to comply with international accounting standards. This change was motivated by a desire to make the countrys businesses more transparent in order to build investor confidence and spur economic growth. Many other Asian countries, including China, India, Japan, and Hong Kong, have also decided either to adopt international standards or to create standards that are based on the international standards. Source: Evan Ramstad, End to Korea Discount? Wall Street Journal (March 16, 2007). 1-16 LO 4 Assumptions MONETARY UNIT ASSUMPTION requires that companies include in the accounting records only transaction data that can be expressed in terms of money. Learning Objective 5

Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption. ECONOMIC ENTITY ASSUMPTION requires that activities of the entity be kept separate and distinct from the activities of its owner and all other economic entities. 1-17 Proprietorship Partnership Corporation Forms of Business Ownership LO 5 Forms of Business Ownership Proprietorship Owned by one person

Owned by two or more persons Owner is often manager/operator Often retail and service-type businesses 1-18 Owner receives any profits, suffers any losses, and is personally liable for all debts Corporation Partnership Generally

unlimited personal liability Ownership divided into shares Separate legal entity organized under corporation law Limited liability Partnership agreement LO 5 Assumptions Review Question The historical cost principle states that: a. assets should be initially recorded at cost and adjusted when the fair value changes. b. activities of an entity are to be kept separate and distinct from its owner. c. assets should be recorded at their cost. d. only transaction data capable of being expressed in terms of money be included in the accounting records.

1-19 LO 5 Accounting Across the Organization Spinning the Career Wheel One question that students frequently ask is, How will the study of accounting help me? A working knowledge of accounting is desirable for virtually every field of endeavor. Some examples of how accounting is used in other careers include: General management: Imagine running Volkswagen (DEU), Saudi Telecom (SAU), a Subway (USA) franchise, or a Fuji (JPN) bike shop. All general managers need to understand where the companys cash comes from and where it goes in order to make wise business decisions. Marketing: Marketing specialists at a company like Hyundai Motor (KOR) develop strategies to help the sales force be successful. But making a sale is meaningless unless it is profitable. Marketing people must be sensitive to costs and benefits, which accounting helps them quantify and understand. 1-20 (continued) LO 5 Accounting Across the Organization Spinning the Career Wheel Finance: Do you want to be a banker for Socit Gnrale (FRA) or a financial analyst for ICBC (CHN)? These fields rely heavily on accounting. In all of them, you will regularly examine and analyze financial statements. In fact, it is difficult to get a good finance job without two or three courses in accounting. Real estate: Are you interested in being a real estate broker for Sothebys International Realty (GBR)? Because a third partythe bankis almost always involved in financing a real estate transaction,

brokers must understand the numbers involved: Can the buyer afford to make the payments to the bank? Does the cash flow from an industrial property justify the purchase price? What are the tax benefits of the purchase? 1-21 LO 5 > DO IT! Indicate whether each of the following statements presented below is true or false. 1. Convergence refers to efforts to reduce differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP. True 2. The primary accounting standard-setting body headquartered in London is the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). True 3. The historical cost principle dictates that companies record assets at their cost. In later periods, however, the fair value of the asset must be used if fair value is higher than its cost. 1-22 False LO 5

> DO IT! Indicate whether each of the following statements presented below is true or false. 4. Relevance means that financial information matches what really happened; the information is factual. 5. A business owners personal expenses must be separated from expenses of the business to comply with accountings economic entity assumption. 1-23 False True LO 5 The Basic Accounting Equation Learning Objective 6 Basic Accounting Equation Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events.

Assets must equal the sum of liabilities and equity. Assets 1-24 = Liabilities + State the accounting equation, and define its components. Equity LO 6 Basic Accounting Equation Assets = Liabilities + Equity

Assets 1-25 Resources a business owns. Provide future services or benefits. Cash, Inventory, Equipment, etc. LO 6 Basic Accounting Equation Assets = Liabilities + Equity Liabilities 1-26

Claims against assets (debts and obligations). Creditors (party to whom money is owed). Accounts Payable, Notes Payable, Salaries and Wages Payable, etc. LO 6 Basic Accounting Equation Assets = Liabilities + Equity Equity 1-27 Ownership claim on total assets.

Referred to as residual equity. Share CapitalOrdinary and Retained Earnings. LO 6 Equity Illustration 1-7 Increases and decreases in equity Investments by shareholders represent the total amount paid in by shareholders for the ordinary shares they purchase. 1-28 LO 6 Stockholders Equity Illustration 1-7 Increases and decreases in equity Revenues result from business activities entered into for the purpose of earning income. Common sources of revenue are: sales, fees, services, commissions, interest, dividends, royalties, and rent. 1-29

LO 6 Stockholders Equity Illustration 1-7 Increases and decreases in equity Expenses are the cost of assets consumed or services used in the process of earning revenue. Common expenses are: salaries expense, rent expense, utilities expense, property tax expense, etc. 1-30 LO 6 Stockholders Equity Illustration 1-7 Increases and decreases in equity Dividends are the distribution of cash or other assets to shareholders. Dividends reduce retained earnings. However, dividends are not expenses. 1-31 LO 6 > DO IT! Classify the following items as issuance of stock, dividends,

revenues, or expenses. Then indicate whether each item increases or decreases stockholders equity. Classification Effect on Equity 1. Rent Expense Expense Decrease 2. Service Revenue Revenue Increase 3. Dividends Dividends Decrease Expense Decrease 4. Salaries and Wages Expense 1-32 LO 6 The Basic Accounting Equation

Transactions are a businesss economic events recorded by accountants. 1-33 Learning Objective 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. May be external or internal. Not all activities represent transactions. Each transaction has a dual effect on the accounting equation. LO 7 Transaction Analysis Illustration: Are the following events recorded in the accounting records? Discuss product Purchase design with

Pay rent Event computer potential customer Criterion Is the financial position (assets, liabilities, or stockholders equity) of the company changed? Record/ Dont Record Illustration 1-8 Transaction-identification process 1-34 LO 7 Transaction Analysis Illustration 1-9 Expanded accounting equation 1-35 LO 7 Transaction Analysis TRANSACTION 1. INVESTMENT BY STOCKHOLDERS Ray and Barbara Neal decide to start a smartphone app development company that they incorporate as Softbyte SA. On September 1, 2017, they invest 15,000 cash in the business in exchange for 15,000 of ordinary shares. The ordinary shares indicates the ownership interest that the Neals have in Softbyte SA. This transaction results in an equal increase in both assets and equity.

Illustration 1-10 Assets Transaction 1. 1-36 Cash +15,000 + = Liabilities + Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Equity Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +15,000 LO 7

TRANSACTION 2. PURCHASE OF EQUIPMENT FOR CASH Softbyte SA purchases computer equipment for 7,000 cash. Illustration 1-10 Assets Transaction Cash 1. +15,000 2. -7,000 + Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div.

+7,000 +1,600 +1,600 +1,200 +1,200 5. +250 6. +1,500 7. -1,700 8. -250 9. +600 10. -1,300 $8,050 + 1-37

Equity +15,000 3. 4. = Liabilities + +2,000 -250 +3,500 -600 -900 -200 -250 -600 -1,300 $1,400 + $1,600 + $7,000 = $1,600 + $15,000 + $4,700 - $1,950 - $1,300 LO 7 TRANSACTION 3. PURCHASE OF SUPPLIES ON CREDIT Softbyte SA purchases for 1,600 headsets and other accessories expected to last

several months. The supplier allows Softbyte to pay this bill in October. Illustration 1-10 Transaction Cash 1. +15,000 2. -7,000 Assets + Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +7,000 +1,600

+1,600 +1,200 +1,200 5. +250 6. +1,500 7. -1,700 8. -250 9. +600 10. -1,300 $8,050 + 1-38 Equity

+15,000 3. 4. = Liabilities + +2,000 -250 +3,500 -600 -900 -200 -250 -600 -1,300 $1,400 + $1,600 + $7,000 = $1,600 + $15,000 + $4,700 - $1,950 - $1,300 LO 7 TRANSACTION 4. SERVICES PERFORMED FOR CASH Softbyte SA receives 1,200 cash from customers for app development services it has performed. Illustration 1-10 Assets

Transaction Cash 1. +15,000 2. -7,000 + Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +7,000 +1,600 +1,600 +1,200

+1,200 5. +250 6. +1,500 7. -1,700 8. -250 9. +600 10. -1,300 $8,050 + 1-39 Equity +15,000 3.

4. = Liabilities + +2,000 -250 +3,500 -600 -900 -200 -250 -600 -1,300 $1,400 + $1,600 + $7,000 = $1,600 + $15,000 + $4,700 - $1,950 - $1,300 LO 7 TRANSACTION 5. PURCHASE OF ADVERTISING ON CREDIT Softbyte SA receives a bill for 250 from the Programming News for advertising on its website but postpones payment until a later date. Illustration 1-10 Assets Transaction Cash

1. +15,000 2. -7,000 + Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +7,000 +1,600 +1,600 +1,200 +1,200

5. +250 6. +1,500 7. -1,700 8. -250 9. +600 10. -1,300 $8,050 + 1-40 Equity +15,000 3. 4. = Liabilities +

+2,000 -250 +3,500 -600 -900 -200 -250 -600 -1,300 $1,400 + $1,600 + $7,000 = $1,600 + $15,000 + $4,700 - $1,950 - $1,300 LO 7 TRANSACTION 6. SERVICES PROVIDED FOR CASH AND CREDIT. Softbyte provides 3,500 of services. The company receives cash of 1,500 from customers, and it bills the balance of 2,000 on account. Illustration 1-10 Transaction Cash 1. +15,000

2. -7,000 Assets + Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +7,000 +1,600 +1,600 +1,200 +1,200 5. +250

6. +1,500 7. -1,700 8. -250 9. +600 10. -1,300 $8,050 + 1-41 Equity +15,000 3. 4. = Liabilities + +2,000

-250 +3,500 -600 -900 -200 -250 -600 -1,300 $1,400 + $1,600 + $7,000 = $1,600 + $15,000 + $4,700 - $1,950 - $1,300 LO 7 TRANSACTION 7. PAYMENT OF EXPENSES Softbyte SA pays the following expenses in cash for September: office rent 600, salaries and wages of employees 900, and utilities 200. Illustration 1-10 Assets Transaction Cash 1. +15,000 2.

-7,000 + Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +7,000 +1,600 +1,600 +1,200 +1,200 5. +250 6.

+1,500 7. -1,700 8. -250 9. +600 10. -1,300 $8,050 + 1-42 Equity +15,000 3. 4. = Liabilities + +2,000 -250 +3,500 -600

-900 -200 -250 -600 -1,300 $1,400 + $1,600 + $7,000 = $1,600 + $15,000 + $4,700 - $1,950 - $1,300 LO 7 TRANSACTION 8. PAYMENT OF ACCOUNTS PAYABLE Softbyte SA pays its 250 Programming News bill in cash. The company previously (in Transaction 5) recorded the bill as an increase in Accounts Payable. Illustration 1-10 Transaction Cash 1. +15,000 2. -7,000 Assets

+ Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +7,000 +1,600 +1,600 +1,200 +1,200 5. +250 6. +1,500 7.

-1,700 8. -250 9. +600 10. -1,300 $8,050 + 1-43 Equity +15,000 3. 4. = Liabilities + +2,000 -250 +3,500 -600 -900 -200

-250 -600 -1,300 $1,400 + $1,600 + $7,000 = $1,600 + $15,000 + $4,700 - $1,950 - $1,300 LO 7 TRANSACTION 9. RECEIPT OF CASH ON ACCOUNT Softbyte SA receives 600 in cash from customers who had been billed for services (in Transaction 6). Illustration 1-10 Assets Transaction Cash 1. +15,000 2. -7,000 + Accounts

Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +7,000 +1,600 +1,600 +1,200 +1,200 5. +250 6. +1,500 7. -1,700

8. -250 9. +600 10. -1,300 $8,050 + 1-44 Equity +15,000 3. 4. = Liabilities + +2,000 -250 +3,500 -600 -900 -200 -250 -600 -1,300

$1,400 + $1,600 + $7,000 = $1,600 + $15,000 + $4,700 - $1,950 - $1,300 LO 7 TRANSACTION 10. DIVIDENDS The corporation pays a dividend of 1,300 in cash to Ray and Barbara Neal, the shareholders of Softbyte SA. Illustration 1-10 Transaction Cash 1. +15,000 2. -7,000 Assets + Accounts Accounts + Supplies + Equipment = + Receivable

Payable Share Capital + Retained Earnings Rev. Exp. Div. +7,000 +1,600 +1,600 +1,200 +1,200 5. +250 6. +1,500 7. -1,700 8. -250

9. +600 10. -1,300 8,050 + 1-45 Equity +15,000 3. 4. = Liabilities + +2,000 -250 +3,500 -600 -900 -200 -250 -600 -1,300 1,400 + 1,600 +

18,050 7,000 = 1,600 + 15,000 + 4,700 - 1,950 - 1,300 18,050 LO 7 Summary of Transactions 1. Each transaction must be analyzed in terms of its effect on: a. The three components of the basic accounting equation. b. Specific types (kinds) of items within each component. 2. The two sides of the equation must always be equal. 3. The Share CapitalOrdinary and Retained Earnings columns indicate the causes of each change in the shareholders claim on assets. 1-46 LO 7 > DO IT! Transactions made by Virmari & Co. SA, a public accounting firm, for the month of August are shown below. Prepare a tabular analysis which shows the effects of these transactions on the expanded accounting equation, similar to that shown in Illustration 1-10.

1. The company issued ordinary shares for 25,000 cash. 2. The company purchased 7,000 of office equipment on credit. 3. The company received 8,000 cash in exchange for services performed. 4. The company paid 850 for this months rent. 5. 1-47 The company paid a dividend of 1,000 in cash to shareholders. LO 7 > DO IT! 1. The company issued ordinary shares for 25,000 cash. Assets TransCash action 1. = Liabilities + + Equipment = Accounts + Payable +25,000 2. +8,000

4. -850 5. -1,000 $31,150 + 1-48 Share Retained Earnings + Capital Rev. Exp. Div. +25,000 +7,000 3. Equity +7,000 +8,000 -850 -1,000 $7,000 $18,050 =

$7,000 + $25,000 + $8,000 - $18,050 $850 - $1,000 LO 7 > DO IT! 2. The company purchased 7,000 of office equipment on credit. Assets TransCash action 1. = Liabilities + + Equipment = Accounts + Payable

+25,000 2. +8,000 4. -850 5. -1,000 $31,150 + 1-49 Share Retained Earnings + Capital Rev. Exp. Div. +25,000 +7,000 3. Equity +7,000 +8,000 -850 -1,000 $7,000

$18,050 = $7,000 + $25,000 + $8,000 - $18,050 $850 - $1,000 LO 7 > DO IT! 3. The company received 8,000 cash in exchange for services performed. Assets TransCash action 1. = Liabilities + + Equipment =

Accounts + Payable +25,000 2. +8,000 4. -850 5. -1,000 $31,150 + 1-50 Share Retained Earnings + Capital Rev. Exp. Div. +25,000 +7,000 3. Equity +7,000

+8,000 -850 -1,000 $7,000 $18,050 = $7,000 + $25,000 + $8,000 - $18,050 $850 - $1,000 LO 7 > DO IT! 4. The company paid 850 for this months rent. Assets TransCash action 1. =

Liabilities + + Equipment = Accounts + Payable +25,000 2. +8,000 4. -850 5. -1,000 $31,150 + 1-51 Share Retained Earnings + Capital Rev. Exp. Div. +25,000 +7,000 3.

Equity +7,000 +8,000 -850 -1,000 $7,000 $18,050 = $7,000 + $25,000 + $8,000 - $18,050 $850 - $1,000 LO 7 > DO IT! 5. The company paid a dividend of 1,000 in cash to shareholders. Assets TransCash

action 1. = Liabilities + + Equipment = Accounts + Payable +25,000 2. +8,000 4. -850 5. -1,000 31,150 + 1-52 Share Retained Earnings + Capital Rev. Exp. Div. +25,000

+7,000 3. Equity +7,000 +8,000 -850 -1,000 7,000 38,150 = 7,000 + 25,000 + 8,000 - 38,150 850 - 1,000 LO 7 The Basic Accounting Equation Companies prepare five financial statements :

Income Statement Retained Earnings Statement Statement of Cash Flows 1-53 Statement of Financial Position Learning Objective 8 Understand the five financial statements and how they are prepared. Comprehensive Income Statement LO 8 Illustration 1-10 Financial statements and their interrelationships

1-54 Illustration 1-11 Financial statements and their interrelationships LO 8 1-55 Illustration 1-11 LO 8 Balance sheet and income statement are needed to prepare statement of cash flows. Illustration 1-11 Financial statements and their interrelationships 1-56 LO 8 Income Statement 1-57 Reports the profitability of the companys operations

over a specific period of time. Lists revenues first, followed by expenses. Shows net income (or net loss). Does not include investment and dividend transactions between the shareholders and the business. LO 8 Financial Statements Review Question Net income will result during a time period when: a. assets exceed liabilities. b. assets exceed revenues. c. expenses exceed revenues. d. revenues exceed expenses. 1-58 LO 8 Retained Earnings Statement 1-59

Reports the changes in retained earnings for a specific period of time. The time period is the same as that covered by the income statement. Information provided indicates the reasons why retained earnings increased or decreased during the period. LO 8 Statement of Financial Position 1-60 Reports the assets, liabilities, and equity at a specific date. Lists assets at the top, followed by liabilities and equity. Total assets must equal total liabilities and equity.

Is a snapshot of the companys financial condition at a specific moment in time (usually the month-end or year-end). LO 8 Financial Statements Review Question The financial statement that reports assets, liabilities, and equity is the: a. income statement. b. retained earnings statement. c. statement of financial position. d. statement of cash flows. 1-61 LO 8 Accounting Across the Organization A Wise End Vodafone (GBR) Not every company uses December 31 as the accounting yearend. Some companies whose year-ends differ from December 31 are Vodafone Group (GBR), March 31; Walt Disney Productions (USA), September 30; and JJB Sports (GBR), the Sunday that falls before, but closest to, January 31. Why do companies choose the particular year-ends that they do? Many opt to end the accounting year when inventory or operations are at a low. Compiling accounting information requires much time and effort by managers, so companies would rather do it when they arent as busy operating the business. Also, inventory is easier and less

costly to count when it is low. 1-62 LO 8 Statement of Cash Flows 1-63 Information on the cash receipts and payments for a specific period of time. Answers the following: Where did cash come from? What was cash used for? What was the change in the cash balance? HELPFUL HINT Investing activities pertain to investments made by the company,

not investments made by the owners. LO 8 Comprehensive Income Statement 1-64 Other comprehensive income items are not part of net income. Reported either by Combining with income statement, or Separate statement. Illustration 1-13 Comprehensive income statement LO 8 People, Planet, and Profit Insight Beyond Financial Statements Should we expand our financial statements beyond the income statement,

retained earnings statement, statement of financial position, and statement of cash flows? Some believe we should take into account ecological and social performance, in addition to financial results, in evaluating a company. The argument is that a companys responsibility lies with anyone who is influenced by its actions. In other words, a company should be interested in benefiting many different parties, instead of only maximizing shareholders interests. A socially responsible business does not exploit or endanger any group of individuals. It follows fair trade practices, provides safe environments for workers, and bears responsibility for environmental damage. Granted, measurement of these factors is difficult. How to report this information is also controversial. But, many interest in and useful efforts are underway. Throughout this textbook, we provide additional insights into how companies are attempting to meet the challenge of measuring and reporting their contributions to society, as well as their financial results, to shareholders. 1-65 LO 8 > DO IT! Presented below is selected information related to Flanagan Group plc at December 31, 2017. Flanagan reports financial information monthly. Equipment Cash Service Revenue Rent Expense Accounts Payable 10,000 8,000 36,000 11,000 2,000

Utilities Expense 4,000 Accounts Receivable 9,000 Salaries and Wages Expense 7,000 Notes Payable 16,500 Dividends 5,000 (a) Determine the total assets of Flanagan at December 31, 2017. (b) Determine the net income that Flanagan reported for December 2017. (c) Determine the equity of Flanagan at December 31, 2017. 1-66 LO 8 Information related to Flanagan Group plc at December 31, 2017. Equipment Cash Service Revenue Rent Expense Accounts Payable 10,000 8,000 36,000 11,000 2,000 Utilities Expense 4,000

Accounts Receivable 9,000 Salaries and Wages Expense 7,000 Notes Payable 16,500 Dividends 5,000 (a) Determine the total assets of Flanagan at December 31, 2017. Equipment Cash 8,000 Accounts Receivable 9,000 Total assets 1-67 10,000 27,000 LO 8 Information related to Flanagan Group plc at December 31, 2017. Equipment Cash Service Revenue Rent Expense Accounts Payable

10,000 8,000 36,000 11,000 2,000 Utilities Expense 4,000 Accounts Receivable 9,000 Salaries and Wages Expense 7,000 Notes Payable 16,500 Dividends 5,000 (b) Determine the net income reported for December 2017. Revenues Service revenue 36,000 Expenses Rent expense 11,000 Salaries and wages expense Utilities expense Total expenses 1-68 Net income 7,000

4,000 22,000 14,000 LO 8 Information related to Flanagan Group plc at December 31, 2017. Equipment Cash Service Revenue Rent Expense Accounts Payable 10,000 8,000 36,000 11,000 2,000 Utilities Expense 4,000 Accounts Receivable 9,000 Salaries and Wages Expense 7,000 Notes Payable 16,500 Dividends 5,000 (c) Determine the equity of Flanagan at December 31, 2017. Total assets [as computed in (a)] 27,000

Less: Liabilities Notes payable 16,500 Accounts payable Equity 1-69 2,000 18,500 8,500 LO 8 APPENDIX 1A Accounting Career Opportunities Learning Objective 9 Public Accounting Explain the career opportunities in accounting. Careers in auditing, taxation, and management consulting serving the general public. Private Accounting Governmental Accounting Careers with the tax authorities, law enforcement agencies, and corporate regulators.

Careers in industry working in cost accounting, budgeting, accounting information systems, and taxation. Forensic Accounting Uses accounting, auditing, and investigative skills to conduct investigations into theft and fraud. 1-70 LO 9 A Look at U.S. GAAP Key Points Most agree that there is a need for one set of international accounting standards. Here is why: Learning Objective 10 Describe the impact of IFRS on U.S. financial reporting. Multinational corporations. Todays companies view the entire world as their market. For example, large companies often generate more than 50% of their sales outside their own boundaries. Mergers and acquisitions. The mergers between Fiat/Chrysler and Vodafone/Mannesmann suggest that we will see even more such business combinations in the future. Information technology. As communication barriers continue to topple through advances in technology, companies and individuals in different countries and markets are becoming more comfortable buying and selling goods and services from one another.

1-71 LO 10 A Look at U.S. GAAP Key Points Financial markets. Financial markets are of international significance today. Whether it is currency, equity securities (shares), bonds, or derivatives, there are active markets throughout the world trading these types of instruments. Similarities GAAP is based on a conceptual framework that is similar to that used to develop IFRS. The three common forms of business organization that are presented in the chapter, proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations, are also found in the United States. Because the choice of business organization is influenced by factors such as legal environment, tax rates and regulations, and degree of entrepreneurism, the relative use of each form will vary across countries. 1-72 LO 10 A Look at U.S. GAAP Similarities Transaction analysis is basically the same under IFRS and GAAP but, as you will see in later chapters, the different standards may impact how transactions are recorded. Financial frauds have occurred at companies such as Satyam Computer Services (IND), Parmalat (ITA), and Royal Ahold (NLD). They have also occurred at large U.S. companies such as Enron, WorldCom, and AIG.

1-73 LO 10 A Look at U.S. GAAP Differences The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) mandates certain internal controls for large public companies listed on U.S. exchanges. There is a continuing debate as to whether non-U.S. companies should have to comply with this extra layer of regulation. Debate about international companies (non-U.S.) adopting SOX-type standards centers on whether the benefits exceed the costs. The concern is that the higher costs of SOX compliance are making the U.S. securities markets less competitive. U.S. regulators have recently eliminated the need for foreign companies that trade shares in U.S. markets to reconcile their accounting with GAAP. IFRS tends to be less detailed in its accounting and disclosure requirements than GAAP. This difference in approach has resulted in a debate about the merits of principles-based (IFRS) versus rulesbased (GAAP) standards. 1-74 LO 10 A Look at U.S. GAAP Looking to the Future Both the IASB and the FASB are hard at work developing standards that will lead to the elimination of major differences in the way certain transactions are accounted for and reported. Consider, for example, that as a result of a joint project on the conceptual framework, the definitions of the most fundamental elements (assets, liabilities, equity, revenues, and expenses) may actually change. However, whether the IASB adopts internal control provisions similar to those in SOX remains to be seen. 1-75

LO 10 A Look at U.S. GAAP A Look at IFRS IFRS Self-Test Questions Which of the following is not a reason why a single set of highquality international accounting standards would be beneficial? a) Mergers and acquisition activity. b) Financial markets. c) Multinational corporations. d) GAAP is widely considered to be a superior reporting system. 1-76 LO 10 A Look at U.S. GAAP A Look at IFRS IFRS Self-Test Questions The Sarbanes-Oxley Act determines: a) international tax regulations. b) internal control standards as enforced by the IASB. c) internal control standards of U.S. publicly traded companies. d) U.S. tax regulations. 1-77 LO 10 A Look at

U.S. GAAP A Look at IFRS IFRS Self-Test Questions IFRS is considered to be more: a) principles-based and less rules-based than GAAP. b) rules-based and less principles-based than GAAP. c) detailed than GAAP. d) None of the above. 1-78 LO 10 Copyright Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. 1-79

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