Febrile seizure - QUMS

Febrile seizure - QUMS

Febrile seizure Dr ZAHRA PIRZADEH CHILD NEUROLOGIST Febrile Seizures Febrile seizures are seizures that occur between the age of 6 and 60 mo with a temperature of 38C or higher, that are not the result of central nervous

system infection or any metabolic imbalance, and that occur in the absence of a history of prior afebrile seizures. Febrile Seizures A simple febrile seizure is a primary generalized,

usually tonic-clonic, attack associated with fever, lasting for a maximum of 15 min, and not recurrent within a 24-hour period. A complex febrile seizure is more prolonged (>15 min), is focal, and/or recurs within 24 hr. Febrile status epilepticus is a febrile seizure lasting >30 min

Febrile Seizures Between 2% and 5% of neurologically healthy infants and children experience at least 1, usually simple, febrile seizure. Simple febrile seizures do not have an increased risk of mortality even though they are concerning to the parents.

Complex febrile seizures may have an approximately 2-fold long-term increase in mortality, as compared to the general population over the subsequent 2 yr, probably secondary to coexisting pathology. Febrile Seizures There are no long-term adverse effects of

having 1 simple febrile seizures. Specifically, recurrent simple febrile seizures do not damage the brain. Compared with age-matched controls, patients with febrile seizures do not have any increase in incidence of abnormalities of behavior, scholastic performance, neurocognitive function, or attention. Children who develop later epilepsy might

experience such difficulties. Febrile Seizures Febrile seizures recur in approximately 30% of those experiencing a first episode, in 50% after 2 or more episodes, and in 50% of infants <1 yr old at febrile seizure onset. Several factors affect

recurrence risk Febrile Seizures RISK FACTORS FOR RECURRENCE OF FEBRILE SEIZURES

MAJOR Age <1 yr Duration of fever <24 hr Fever 38-39 C MINOR Family history of febrile seizures Family history of epilepsy Complex febrile seizure

Day care Male gender Lower serum sodium recurrence rate : no risk factor:12% , 1 risk factor 25-50% , 2 rf 50-59% 3 or more 73-100% Febrile Seizures Although about 15% of children with epilepsy

have had febrile seizures, only 2-7% of children who experience febrile seizures proceed to develop epilepsy later in life. There are several predictors of epilepsy after febrile seizures Febrile Seizures There are several predictors of epilepsy after febrile

seizures Simple febrile seizure 1% Neurodevelopmental abnormalities 33% Focal complex febrile seizure 29% Family history of epilepsy 18%

Fever <1 hr before febrile seizure 11% Complex febrile seizure, any type 6% Recurrent febrile seizures 4% Febrile Seizures(genetic factors) Genetic Factors

The genetic contribution to incidence of febrile seizures is manifested by a positive family history for febrile seizures. In many families the disorder is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, and multiple single genes causing the disorder have been identified.

Febrile Seizures(genetic factors) In most cases the disorder appears polygenic, and the genes predisposing to it remain to be identified. Identified single genes include FEB 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 genes on chromosomes 8q13-q21, 19p13.3, 2q24, 5q14-q15, 6q22-24, 18p11.2,

and 21q22. Only the function of FEB 2 is known: it is a sodium channel gene, SCN1A. Febrile Seizures Almost any type of epilepsy can be preceded by febrile seizures, and a few epilepsy

syndromes typically start with febrile seizures. These are generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI, also called Dravet syndrome), and, in many patients, temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to mesial temporal

Febrile Seizures (GEFS+) GEFS+ is an autosomal dominant syndrome with a highly variable phenotype. Onset is usually in early childhood and remission is usually in mid-childhood. It is characterized by multiple febrile seizures and several types of afebrile

generalized seizures, including generalized tonic-clonic, absence, myoclonic, atonic, or myoclonic astatic seizures with variable degrees of severity. Febrile Seizures(DRAVET SYN) Dravet syndrome is considered to be the most severe of the phenotypic spectrum of febrile

seizures plus. It constitutes a distinctive separate entity that is one of the most severe forms of epilepsy starting in infancy. Its onset is in the 1st yr of life, characterized by febrile and afebrile unilateral clonic seizures recurring every 1 or 2 mo.

Febrile Seizures(DRAVET SYN) These early seizures are typically induced by fever, but they differ from the usual febrile convulsions in that they are more prolonged, are more frequent, and come in clusters. Seizures subsequently start to occur with lower fevers and then without fever.

During the 2nd yr of life, myoclonus, atypical absences, and partial seizures occur frequently and developmental delay usually follows. Febrile Seizures(DRAVET SYN) This syndrome is usually caused by a new mutation, although rarely it is inherited in an

autosomal dominant manner. The mutated gene is located on 2q24-31 and encodes for SCN1A, the same gene mutated in GEFS+ spectrum. However, in Dravet syndrome the mutations lead to loss of function and thus to a more severe phenotype

Febrile Seizures(DRAVET SYN) The majority of patients who had had prolonged febrile seizures and encephalopathy after vaccination and who had been presumed to have suffered from vaccine encephalopathy (seizures and psychomotor regression occurring after

vaccination and presumed to be caused by it) have Dravet syndrome mutations, indicating that their disease is due to the mutation and not secondary to the vaccine. This has raised doubts about the very existence of the entity termed vaccine Febrile Seizures work-up Each child who presents with a febrile seizure

requires a detailed history and a thorough general and neurologic examination. These are the cornerstones of the evaluation. Febrile seizures often occur in the context of otitis media, roseola and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) infection, shigella,

or similar infections, making the evaluation more demanding. Febrile Seizures &LP Lumbar puncture is recommended in children <12 mo of age after their first febrile seizure to rule out meningitis. It is especially important to consider if the child has received prior antibiotics that would mask the clinical

symptoms of the meningitis. The presence of an identified source of fever, such as otitis media, does not eliminate the possibility of meningitis. Seizures are the major sign of meningitis in 13-15% of children presenting with this disease, and 30-35% of such children have no other meningeal signs. it is strongly recommended in infants <1 yr of age because other signs of the infection might not be present.

Febrile Seizures &LP A child between 12 and 18 mo of age should also be considered for lumbar puncture because the clinical symptoms of meningitis may be subtle in this age group. For the well-appearing child after a febrile seizure, the yield of lumbar puncture is very low.

Febrile Seizures &LP For children >18 mo of age, a lumbar puncture is indicated in the presence of clinical signs and symptoms of meningitis (e.g., neck stiffness, Kernig sign, Brudzinski sign) or if the history and/or physical examination otherwise suggest intracranial

infection. Febrile Seizures & EEG Electroencephalogram If the child is presenting with his or her first simple febrile seizure and is otherwise neurologically healthy, an EEG need not normally be performed as part of the

evaluation. An EEG would not predict the future recurrence of febrile seizures or epilepsy even if the result is abnormal. Febrile Seizures & neuroimaging a CT or MRI is not recommended in evaluating the child after a first simple febrile seizure.

The work-up of children with complex febrile seizures needs to be individualized. This can include EEG and neuroimaging, particularly if the child is neurologically abnormal.

Febrile Seizures & neuroimaging Patients with febrile status epilepticus have been reported to have swelling of their hippocampus acutely and subsequent longterm hippocampal atrophy. These patients may be candidates for neuroimaging, because they may be at risk for later temporal lobe epilepsy.

Febrile Seizures & treatment In general, antiepileptic therapy, continuous or intermittent, is not recommended for children with one or more simple febrile seizures. Parents should be counseled about the

relative risks of recurrence of febrile seizures and recurrence of epilepsy, educated on how to handle a seizure acutely, and given emotional support. Febrile Seizures & treatment If the seizure lasts for >5 min, then acute treatment with diazepam, lorazepam, or

midazolam is needed Rectal diazepam is often prescribed to be given at the time of recurrence of febrile seizure lasting >5 min . Alternatively, buccal or intranasal midazolam may be used and is often preferred by parents. Febrile Seizures & treatment

Intravenous benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, phenytoin, or valproate may be needed in the case of febrile status epilepticus. If the parents are very anxious concerning their child's seizures, intermittent oral diazepam can be given during febrile illnesses (0.33 mg/kg every 8 hr during fever) to help reduce the risk of seizures in children

known to have had febrile seizures with previous illnesses Febrile Seizures & treatment Intermittent oral nitrazepam, clobazam, and clonazepam (0.1 mg/kg/day) have also been used. Other therapies have included intermittent

diazepam prophylaxis (0.5 mg/kg administered as a rectal suppository every 8 hr), phenobarbital (4-5 mg/kg/day in 1 or 2 divided doses), and valproate (20-30 mg/kg/day in 2 or 3 divided doses). Febrile Seizures & treatment In the vast majority of cases it is not justified

to use these medications owing to the risk of side effects and lack of demonstrated longterm benefits, even if the recurrence rate of febrile seizures is expected to be decreased by these drugs. Other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have not been shown to be effective.

Febrile Seizures & treatment Antipyretics can decrease the discomfort of the child but do not reduce the risk of having a recurrent febrile seizure, probably because the seizure often occurs as the temperature is rising or falling. Chronic antiepileptic therapy may be considered for children with a high risk for

later epilepsy. Febrile Seizures & treatment Currently available data indicate that the possibility of future epilepsy does not change with or without antiepileptic therapy. Iron deficiency has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of febrile

seizures, and thus screening for that problem and treating it appears appropriate

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