Ecology Review Presentation for Biology Keystone Assessment Created by Joshua Collins 2012 Table of Contents 1) What is Ecology? 2) Ecological Interactions 3) Nutrient Cycles 1) What is
Ecology? 2) Ecological Interactions 3) Nutrient Cycles Section 1 of 4: What is Ecology? 1) What is Ecology? Ecology The study of relationships and interactions of living things with one another and their environment
A food web like this one gives us a good look at some of the different ways organisms interact within their habitat. Living vs. Non-Living All the living things in a particular environment are called Biotic factors All the non-living things are called
Abiotic factors HINT As you probably know, the root word bio means life, so abiotic simply means not living. Population A population refers to all organisms of a single species that live within a certain area. Look at these examples. What distinct populations are visible? Giraffes, buffalos, grass, trees Community In ecological terms, a community refers to all of the different organisms that live within a certain area. Remember, this includes not just animals, but plants
and all other living things as well. A community consists of many different populations interacting and coexisting alongside one another. Habitat An organisms habitat refers to the physical environment where it lives. This includes mainly the abiotic factors What are these animals habitats? Picture the type of environment where youd expect to find each one.
Putting Them All When you include all the entire community of different Together species (multiple populations) AND the habitat they live in, youre now talking about a whole y t i n u m m Co +
= Ecosystem Habitat Ecosystem An ecosystem is Any ecosystem consists of very finely balanced factors including organisms which have coevolved (evolved together) over millions of years. All the organisms AND their physical environment Made up of the community AND habitat An interaction of biotic AND abiotic factors Biomes
A biome is a large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plants and animals. What different biomes can you name? Biosphere All of the different environments on our planet make up what we call the biosphere, literally the sphere of life. This term refers to all the places on Earth where life exists. Life on Earth is only found a few miles above or below sea level (near the surface). This can be broken up into
subcategories: Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere (Litho means rock.) ALL LIFE AIR WATER LAND Ecological Succession Strong ecosystems take a very long time to be colonized and have all its potential
niches filled in, which we call a climax community. This process of organisms essentially building a new ecosystem from the ground up is called ecological succession. Starting from scratch, this can take thousands or even millions of years! Secondary Succession When an earlier ecosystem is wiped out, a new one will gradually form in its place, and this process happens much quicker because soil and some tiny organisms are already present.
This is called secondary succession. Maintaining Healthy Because of these coevolved relationships, Ecosystems completely different species rely heavily on each other for their mutual survival. The more complex interactions there are, the greater the biodiversity, and the healthier the ecosystem. Changes that directly affect or harm one factor of an ecosystem almost always have unforeseen consequences for many species. If changes occur too quickly for species to
adapt, the result is often Extinction 1) What is Ecology? 2) Ecological Interactions 3) Nutrient Cycles Section 2 of 4: Ecological Interactions
Simple Food Chain Top predator Carnivorous predator Would the food chain break down? Insectivore If there is enough biodiversity in the ecosystem, then probably another species would step in and fill that niche.
For example, if all the mice were wiped out, there are probably other insectivores in the area that could play the same part. Herbivore Producer If one of these species were to be driven out by human interference or were to go extinct entirely, what do you think would happen? Simple Food Chain Notice that the arrows in this food chain
all point upward. This is because they do NOT indicate what the food source is. Rather, they show the flow of energy through the ecosystem. In this example, the flower starts out with the energy, which it produced through photosynthesis. (In reality, we of course know that the flower is not making this energy from scratch but obtaining it in the form of light radiation from the Sun.) Trophic Levels The organisms on a food chain can also be described in terms of their trophic level (trophic means food or feeding). This describes the organisms
level from the bottom of the food chain, meaning how many different organisms the energy has passed through to get to it. The snake in this chain is a tertiary (third) consumer because its three levels up from the producer. Energy Pyramids Since energy is always lost as it is transferred, the amount of total energy (or biomass) decreases as we move up the pyramid.
As you can see, the amount of energy decreases There will alwaysby be aa much greater factor overall number of producers than will be of the organisms that ofthere TEN for each
level consume the plants. you move up the Top predators have a much lower population thanpyramid. animals below energy them on the chain. In other words, when one organism eats another, 90% of the energy is lost or used up and only 10% passes into the consumer. Food Webs In reality, ecosystems are much more complex than a single food chain. Thats why a food web can be handy to give us a much better picture of
all of the different connections in an ecosystem. Ecological Click the images below to see a few types of interspecies Relationships relationships that are common in most ecosystems. Predator-Prey Parasitism Symbiosis Predator-Prey Predation When one animal actively hunts and
feeds on another live animal (its prey) A cheetah and gazelle are an obvious example of a classic predator-prey relationship. In nature, of course, there are thousands of different predator-prey relationships. Many are much more subtle than this example.
You can probably figure out which is which. Back to Ecological Relationships Slide Symbiosis There are a two main types of symbiotic relationships: Mutualism: Commensalism: Two species who each benefit from the other Only one species benefits
while the other is unharmed This water buffalo gets the bugs picked off while the oxpecker bird gets a free meal. Barnacles are tiny shelled crustaceans which often hitch a ride on an unsuspecting whale. You can probably think of many other examples of symbiotic relationships. Back to Ecological Relationships Slide
Parasitism Dog tick Parasites are organisms which live in or on another species called a host. The hosts body becomes the temporary habitat for the parasite. Tape worm Parasites generally dont
kill their hosts because that would leave them without a home. Back to Ecological Relationships Slide Coevolution Predator-Prey Symbiosis Remember: All of these types of ecological interactions are a result of different species evolving together over millions of years.
This is called coevolution This long-term coevolution is what gives ecosystems stability and resiliency. Parasitism It It also also explains explains why why itit is is so so easy easy for for humans humans to
to disrupt disrupt ecosystems. ecosystems. Back to Ecological Relationships Slide 1) What is Ecology? 2) Ecological Interactions 3) Nutrient Cycles
Section 3 of 4: Nutrient Cycles The Carbon Cycle CO2 NOTICE: O2 This is one of the fundamental biological interactions that make up the carbon cycle. By doing photosynthesis,
plants are essentially building themselves out of the carbon they take in from the air (with some help from the Sun!) This part of the carbon cycle doesnt add any new carbon dioxide to the atmosphere because its just recycling the same carbon over an over again into different living things. The Carbon Cycle This diagram shows the main places carbon is stored on our planet. It also shows the
processes that either absorb carbon from the air OR release carbon back into the atmosphere as CO2. Other Nutrient CO Cycles 2 O2 The balance of the carbon cycle is critical for the survival of all life on Earth, but there are other important substances that cycle their way around our planet in similar ways.
The Nitrogen Cycle In addition to taking in carbon through their leaves (in the form of CO2), plants also take in nitrogen through their roots. This nitrogen is found in nitrates and other nutrients. This is why farmers add fertilizer to the soil. Nitrogen atom The Nitrogen Cycle The nitrogen cycle involves lots of different organisms that live on and in the ground. Among the most important of these are: Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, found in
plants roots, which convert N2 gas into nitrate nutrients for the plant. Soil bacteria which convert the nitrates back into atmospheric nitrogen. The Water Cycle And, of course, water circulates around the planet in its various forms: as a solid, liquid, and a vapor. Water molecule Some processes of the water cycle:
Teachable Unit: Population Growth Preclass Learning Outcome(s) Know how to define a population. Know that density is one way of measuring changes in a population. Activity/assessment Reading/lecture on population Clicker question or online quiz for self-assessment Time Pop.
MIPS Assembly Language Author: Computer Science Department Last modified by: Computer Science Department Created Date: 9/8/2003 3:35:27 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company: Texas A&M University Other titles
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